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Институт стратегического анализа нарративных систем
(ИСАНС)
L'institut de l'analyse strategique des systemes narratifs
(IASSN)
Інститут стратегічного аналізу наративних систем
(ІСАНС)



статья

NEC - EARLY PROTO-VASCONIC COMPARISON

Vasconic doesn't seem to be a direct output of NEC, but rather a sister language, and several roots can be comparable. Regular phonetic correspondence can be found, but details of development are lost. Protoforms are usually referred to the oldest stage of Proto-Vasconic, when necessary some attempts to reconstruct more recent stages are provided.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protofrom: *?a:na-qwen-dV (-t.V)
NEC parallels: *?a:nV(jV) 'mother' + *=HiqwA:(n) 'to bear, give
birth'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *ana-(h)ide
Meaning: maternal relative
Basque forms: ahaide
Meaning: relative


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protofrom: *?a:na-wV
NEC parallels: *?a:nV(jV) 'mother'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *an-ba
Meaning: mother
Basque forms: ama
Meaning: mother
Comments: Cfr. also Basque amona 'grandmother', from *anba-bon lit. 'good mother', dialectal variant amuma.

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *an-ba-ba
Meaning: maternal ancestor
Basque forms: ama-ba
Meaning: maternal ancestor


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protofrom: *?a:ni-s:V-wV
NEC parallels: *?a:nV(jV) 'mother'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *an-iz-pa
Meaning: sister (*who has the same mother)
Basque forms: ahizpa
Meaning: sister (of a female)


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protofrom: *?a:njV-nV / *?a:njV-nV-wV
NEC parallels: *?a:nV(jV) 'mother'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *(h)aNa, *aNa-(n)e-(b)a
Meaning: brother (*who has the same mother)
Basque forms: anai, anei 1, ne-ba 2
Meaning: 1 brother (of a male) 2 brother (of a female)
Aquitanian form: Hanna
Aquitanian meaning: Brother

Comments: A noticeable form, that can be considered a proof of an ancient matriarchal society, very common in European and in North African prehistory. A remnant is also Tuareg ana 'brother'.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *?a:rx|:V
NEC parallels: *?i:rl|_wV 'male'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *aR
Meaning: male (human or animal)
Basque forms: ar
Meaning: male


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *?a:t:a:
NEC parallels: *da:jV / *da:da:jV 'father; mother'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *atta
Meaning: father
Basque forms: aita
Meaning: father
Comments: Cfr. also Basque aitona 'grandfather', from *atta-bon lit. 'good father'.
Aquitanian form: Atta-
Aquitanian meaning: Father
Comments: Notice te anthroponym Attacco 'Daddy' (-ko is a quite common diminutive in Basque).

Comments: Anthroponyms containing the element Atta- are found extensively through the whole Iberian peninsula, often very outside the Basque Country (e.g. in Lusitania).


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *?acV(n)-dV-mV (-t.V-mV)
NEC parallels: *=a>lcU>m 'to measure, weigh'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *astuN
Meaning: weighed; heavy
Basque forms: astun
Meaning: weighed; heavy


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *?am?yc^.:e-nV
NEC parallels: *mh_a">nc./_i> 'nettle'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *ausuni
Meaning: nettle
Basque forms: asun, asuin, ausin, osin
Meaning: nettle

Comments: Initial vowel was supportive, so we can assume that the initial cluster was preserved. The protoform must have been particularly convoluted.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *?and-a-rV (h_-)
NEC parallels: *?_@mdV 'joint, bone'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *ad-aR
Meaning: horn
Basque forms: adar
Meaning: horn; branch

Comments: This root was later borrowed into Proto-Celtic *adar-ka: 'horn', well attested in Hibernia (> Irish adharc) and in continental Europe (glossed as adarkion, adarca 'reed'). Any attempt to provide the Celtic forms with an IE etymon has been either unsuccessful or ridicule, as happens. So we consider it a noticeable substratum item in areas very far from Vasconic fatherland.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *?anwex|:V-s^:V
NEC parallels: *nhewl^._u> 'sleep'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *anbes
Meaning: dream
Basque forms: aments
Meaning: dream


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *?a-p:ad-ni
NEC parallels: *Hpa>dV (/ *Hba>tV) 'a k. of clothes (for legs or
feet)'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *apani
Meaning: ornament; fine cloth; elegant
Basque forms: apain
Meaning: ornament; fine cloth; elegant

Comments: The original meaning was probably 'trousers', a kind of cloth worn by Vasconic nobles in imitation of Celts.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *?aq.wnV-s:V
NEC parallels: *=@>q.wVn 'to be sufficient, enough'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *(h)aN-(h)iz
Meaning: many
Basque forms: hanitz, hainitz, aunitz, anhitz
Meaning: many


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *?aqwan-an-s:V
NEC parallels: *=eqwVn 'to forget'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *an-anz-i
Meaning: to forget
Basque forms: ahantzi, anz-tu, az-tu
Meaning: to forget
Comments: The usual suffix -tu is of course of Latin origin.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *?aqwo-rV
NEC parallels: *=HiqwA:(n) 'to bear, give birth'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *(h)auR
Meaning: child
Basque forms: haur
Meaning: child


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *?arc^wV-nV
NEC parallels: *h|y[n]c^wi> 'horse'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *ars-to
Meaning: ass (asinus)
Basque forms: a(r)sto
Meaning: ass (asinus)

Comments: This derivation accounts for any Basque phonetic feature. Attempts to search the origin of the item in hartz 'bear' or directly in Latin asinus are clearly ludicrous. From Iberia the word spread into Berber ast, asnus 'ass'. Latin asinus, Greek o/nos, Armenian e_s^ 'ass' are of course distant relatives, all of NEC origin.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *?arVdwV-
NEC parallels: *?VlVdwV (~ -r-) 'beer; whey' < '*fermented juice'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): **arda-dano > *ar-dano
Meaning: wine
Basque forms: ard(a)o, arno, ardan-
Meaning: wine

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *ar-dan-za(h)a
Meaning: vineyard
Basque forms: ardantza
Meaning: vineyard

Comments: For the second member of the compound see the discussion of Proto-Vasconic *-t.a-nV - NEC *=it.Vl 'to drip, drop, pour; wet'. An ancient haplology. Other external parallels: Albanian ardhi 'wine', which cannot be a direct loan and should be regarded as a substrate remnant. Armenian ort 'wine' can be a loanword from NEC. The idea of an IE origin for NEC *?VlVdwV (~ -r-) should be dismissed, it is far more probable the reverse, as Vasconic and Albanian require a protoform with a /-r-/.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *?as:i-jV (h_-)
NEC parallels: *?_a>ms_a 'sky, cloud; soul, breath; god'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *(h)aize
Meaning: wind, air
Basque forms: (h)aize
Meaning: wind, air


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *?ax|:wVnV-s:V
NEC parallels: *=a>l^_wVn 'to resemble, similar'

Protoform (in Michelena's ortography): *anz
Meaning: appearence, look
Basque forms: antz
Meaning: appearence, look


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *?e:rax|:V
NEC parallels: *=y:raL^_V 'stomach; rennet, abomasum'

Protoform (in Michelena's ortography): *eRa(h)i
Meaning: belly, abdomen
Basque forms: errai
Meaning: belly, abdomen


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *?ec-kwV?V
NEC parallels: *ch@ 'one' + kwi:l?_V 'hand'

Protoform (in Michelena's ortography): *esku
Meaning: hand
Basque forms: esku
Meaning: hand
Comments: Noticeable compounds are eskuin, eskuma 'right hand' < esku + on 'good', and eskeini 'to offer' < esku + ipini 'to put'.

Comments: The word has a remnant of the NEC numeral root *ch@ 'one' otherwise lost already in the most remote stages of Proto-Vasconic. The liquid consonant in the NEC reconstructed protoform was probably not very stable, as we cannot find any trace of it in Vasconic.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *?i-?in-a/w-
NEC parallels: *=i?wV-(n) 'to say'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *e-in-au-, *e-in-on-i
Meaning: to say
Basque forms: d-io, d-ino
Meaning: he says


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *?i-?in-u/-s^:V-
NEC parallels: *=i?wV-(n) 'to say'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *e-nu-s-kala
Meaning: Vasconic language
Basque forms: euskara, euskera, euskal-
Meaning: Basque language

Comments: Basque enusquera is found in Garibay, and the old link with the Aquitanian ethnonym Ausci must be dismissed.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *?i-?isV-n-
NEC parallels: *=a">sA 'to sit, stay'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *e-izan-i
Meaning: to be
Basque forms: izan
Meaning: to be

Comments: Phonetic correspondences are quite regular.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *?i-?ita-n-un-
NEC parallels: *=a>tVr 'to let, leave; to stay'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *e-ira(n)un-i
Meaning: to last
Basque forms: iraun
Meaning: to last


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *?i-?op:-s^:V-
NEC parallels: *=i>rbE> 'to sew'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *e-os-i
Meaning: to sew
Basque forms: josi
Meaning: to sew


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *?i-?wVn-an-
NEC parallels: *=V?wVn 'to go'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *e-o(n)an-i
Meaning: to go
Basque forms: joan
Meaning: to go


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *?i-c:u
NEC parallels: *=Vc_V 'dark, blind' (often reduplive)

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *i-tsu
Meaning: blind
Basque forms: itsu 1, itsu-si 2
Meaning: 1 blind 2 ugly
Comments: Adverb itsuski 'in a bad way'.

Comments: The ancient medial fortis was preserved as usual in the prefix + root structure.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform step 1: *?i-cV-(r)an-
Protoform step 2: *?i-s^an-, *?i-zran-
NEC parallels: *=[i:]mcU: 'to speak, to tell, to talk'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *e-san-i, *e-Ran-i
Meaning: to say
Basque forms: esan, erran
Meaning: to say


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *?i-d-u:k.-
NEC parallels: *=a":k.A>w 'to put (together), take; to lie'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *e-dun-i, *-dun
Meaning: to catch, to hold > to have
Basque forms: -(d)u- 1, -dun 2
Meaning: 1 to have 2 having

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *e-duk-an-i
Meaning: to have
Basque forms: ukan
Meaning: to have

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *e-du-ts-i
Meaning: to seize, to grasp
Basque forms: eutsi, utsi
Meaning: to seize, to grasp


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *?i-G|a:m-rV
NEC parallels: *HmVG_V: 'thirst, to be thirsty'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *e-gaRi
Meaning: thirst
Basque forms: egarri
Meaning: thirst


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *?i-Ga-jV-n- / *?i-Go-m-
NEC parallels: *=a":GV 'to stand up; to erect; high'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *e-gain-i / *e-go-bi
Meaning: to go up, to get up
Basque forms: igain, igan, igo
Meaning: to go up, to get up


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *?i-h_wil-dV- (-t.V-)
NEC parallels: *?_wil?_a> 'wheel' < '*to roll'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *e-biL-i
Meaning: to go around
Basque forms: ibili
Meaning: to go around


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *?i-jicwV-dV (-t.V)
NEC parallels: *jicw@ (~ -o) 'place'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *e-(e)ser-i
Meaning: to seat
Basque forms: eseri
Meaning: to seat


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *?ijV-s:V-wV
NEC parallels: *ja:jV 'mother, grandmother'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *ize-ba
Meaning: aunt
Basque forms: ize-ba
Meaning: aunt


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform step 1: *?i-k.wun-
Protoform step 2: *?i-gun-
NEC parallels: *=i:k.wV 'to burn, set on fire'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *egun, *egur-
Meaning: day
Basque forms: egun, egur-, egu-
Meaning: day
Comments: For the ancient alternation -n / -r / -0, cfr. the derivatives egur-aldi 'weather', egu-erdi 'noon', egu-berri 'Christmas', egu-antz 'dawn'.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform step 1: *?i-k.wun-rV
Protoform step 2: *?i-gun-rV
NEC parallels: *=i:k.wV 'to burn, set on fire'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *egu-R
Meaning: wood (for burning)
Basque forms: egur
Meaning: wood (for burning)


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform step 1: *?i-k.wun-(s:V)-k.V
Protoform step 2: *?i-gun-(s:V)-k.V
NEC parallels: *=i:k.wV 'to burn, set on fire'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *egu-z-ki, *ek-ki
Meaning: sun
Basque forms: eguzki, eki
Meaning: sun


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform step 1: *?i-k.w-Vrc.V-
Protoform step 1: *?i-gV-s^:V-
NEC parallels: *=i:k.wV 'to burn, set on fire' + *=e>rc.U> 'to
heat, to roast'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *e-gos-i
Meaning: to cook (an egg, etc.)
Basque forms: egosi
Meaning: to cook (an egg, etc.)


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *?i-ka:r-
NEC parallels: *=ikA:r 'to take with, provide' > 'to bring'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *e-kaR-i
Meaning: to bring
Basque forms: ekarri
Meaning: to bring


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *?i-k-u:z|-
NEC parallels: *=a":mz|E> 'to pour, to bathe'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *e-kuz-i
Meaning: to wash
Basque forms: ikuzi
Meaning: to wash

Comments: In NEC languages this verbal root is often found with velar or uvular prefixes.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *?i-kw|Vn-
NEC parallels: *?ikwVn 'to eat'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *e-an-i
Meaning: to eat
Basque forms: jan
Meaning: to eat

Comments: From this root derives also Basque jakin 'to know', originally 'to taste something' with a semantic shift similar to that occurred in Romance languages (Larry Trask).


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform step 1: *?i-kwo:c:V-
Protoform step 2: *?i-ku:c^:V-
NEC parallels: *kwy:jc_V 'form, appearance'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *e-kus-i
Meaning: to see
Basque forms: ikusi
Meaning: to see

Comments: Initial k- of the root is protected by the faringal verbal prefix and doesn't fall. Being not glottalized, it remains voiceless.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *?ilx|:e:
NEC protoforms: *HiL^_V (~ -a"-) 'to say'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *eL(h)e
Meaning: word
Basque forms: ele
Meaning: word
Comments: In the aspirating dialects we have elhe.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *?i-lVx|:V-nV
NEC parallels: *lHax|_V (~ l/-) 'black' < '*dark'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *il-(h)un / *iL-(h)un
Meaning: dark; darkness
Basque forms: ilun
Meaning: dark; darkness
Aquitanian form: -il(h)un, Il(h)ur-
Aquitanian meaning: Dark


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *?ilx|wV-
NEC parallels: *=ilqwV- / *=ilx|wV- 'to die (plur. subject), die
out'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *(h)eli
Meaning: ill(ness); plague, pest; ruin
Basque forms: eri, hel-, el-
Meaning: ill(ness); plague, pest; ruin
Comments: Compounds: helgaitz, elgaitz 'fever'; helkaitz 'disgrace'.

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *(h)eli-bo
Meaning: death
Basque forms: herio
Meaning: death

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *el(h)o-bi
Meaning: to kill
Basque forms: ero
Meaning: to kill


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *?i-lwo-tV-
NEC parallels: *Hral|wE 'to fall, go down' + *=@:tV 'to move, go,
come'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *e-lor-i
Meaning: to fall
Basque forms: erori
Meaning: to fall


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *?i-x|:wa/-
NEC parellels: *jimx|_wA> 'river'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *i-bae(a), *iba-R
Meaning: river
Basque forms: ibai 1, ibar 2
Meaning: 1 river 2 valley

Iberian Etymology :
Protoform: *?i-x|:wa/-
Meaning: river
Iberian: *i-bai-ka
Meaning: flooded valley or plain
Comments: From this source comes Spanish vega id. This word is found also in some Sardinian dialects as bega. It cannot be an Aragonese loanword, and it's found exactly in the area of the ancient Nora, where an Iberian hero landed, according to a legend.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *?i-mz|V-
NEC parallels: *mi>z|V 'sweet' - *hwmi>z|_u: 'honey'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *ez-ti 1,2, *ez-le 3,
*ez-ko 4
Meaning: 1 sweet 2 honey 3 bee 4 wax
Basque forms: ez-ti 1,2 er-le 3 ez-ko 4
Meaning: 1 sweet 2 honey 3 bee 4 wax
Comments: Interesting compounds are erle 'beehive', 'colony of bees' < *ezle(h)e (an ancient collective); erlauntz(a) 'beehive', 'colony of bees' < *ezle-kunC-za(h)a (an ancient collective); erlamando 'bumblebee' < erle + mando 'mule'; erlastar, erlero 'bumblebee' (second member unclear in both words); erlalper 'drone' < erle + alper 'weak'; erlakaizten 'wasp' < erle + gaitz 'bad' + an ancient augmentative suffix (found in Aquitanian ad -ten(n)- in Cisontenn-, Senitenn-).

Comments: The word for 'bee' has a transparent agentive suffix (lit. honey-maker). This denomination was originated by an ancient taboo.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform step 1: *?i-nkwV-n-
Protoform step 2: *?i-gwon-
NEC parallels: *=i:nkwV 'to lie, lie down'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *e-gon-i
Meaning: to stay, to be
Basque forms: egon
Meaning: to stay, to be

Iberian Etymology :
Protoform: *-ngwV-
Meaning: to stay, to be
Iberian: -ke- / -kei- / -ki- / -ko-
Meaning: to stay, to be
Comments: We have a bilingual epitaph with Iberian ar'e take ken and Latin heic est sit.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *?i-n?V-sV-n-
NEC parallels: *?|wa>n?|V 'ear' + *=a(m)sV 'to be silent, listen'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *e-n(e)zun-i
Meaning: to hear
Basque forms: entzun
Meaning: to hear


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform step 1: *?i-q.:i:-n-
Protoform step 2: *?i-gi-n-
NEC parallels: *=Ho>q._E: 'to do, make; to be, become'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *e-gin-i
Meaning: to do, to make
Basque forms: egin
Meaning: to do, to make

Iberian Etymology :
Protoform: *-q.:i-
Meaning: to do, to make
Old Iberian: -ki-
Late Iberian: -gi-
Meaning: to do, to make
Comments: Iberian e-ki-en 'he made', e-ki-ar 'made', bo-ki-ar 'production'.

Comments: The Vasconic form has a nasal extension incorporated to the root, while Iberian has a root without any suffix.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform step 1: *?i-q:durV, *?i-x|:durV
Protoform step 2: *?i-t:urV
NEC parallels: *G|HwadVrV 'river, stream'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *e-tuR-i, *i-tuR-i
Meaning: source, spring
Basque forms: iturri
Meaning: source, spring

Comments: Compare the ancient Hispanic toponym Iturissa, outside the Vasconic area. Noticeable also the Narbonese ancient toponym Eturamina.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *?i-q:wa-dV- (-t.V)
NEC parallels: *=iq_wV 'to hold, catch'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *e-gar-i
Meaning: to endure
Basque forms: egari
Meaning: to endure


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform step 1: *?i-s^:wVn-
Protoform step 2: *?i-ws^:an-
NEC parallels: *s_Hwin-t.V- 'snuff, smell; snot'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *e-usan-i
Meaning: to smell
Basque forms: usain-(du)
Meaning: to smell


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform step 1: *?i-t.a-n-
Protoform step 2: *?i-da-n-
NEC parallels: *=it.Vl 'to drip, drop, pour; wet'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *e-dan-i
Meaning: to pour > to drink
Basque forms: edan, eran
Meaning: to drink


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *?i-t.(V)t.V-n-
NEC parallels: *=i>t.V 'to cut, to divide'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *e-ten-i
Meaning: to break; to divide into pieces
Basque forms: eten
Meaning: to break; to divide into pieces

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *-te
Meaning: period of time
Basque forms: as-te 1, ur-te 2, men-de
Meaning: 1 week 2 year 3 century
Aquitanian form: asto-
Aquitanian meaning: week
Comments: Cfr. the theonym Astoilhun = the Dark Part of the Week.

Comments: Most probably an old reduplicative, in order to account for the initial voiceless pre-Basque dental stop.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform step 1: *?i-tV-?Vr-
Protoform step 1: *?i-tV-r-
NEC parallels: *=@:tV 'to move, go, come' + *=V?wV(r) 'to go, to
come'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *e-toR-i
Meaning: to come
Basque forms: etorri
Meaning: to come


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *?iwlV
NEC parallels: *=iwl^.E> 'to die, to kill'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *(h)iL
Meaning: to die; to kill
Basque forms: hil
Meaning: to die; to kill

Comments: An old prefixless verb.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *?i-x|:u-wa-n-
NEC parallels:*=i>L^_V 'to give'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *e-oan-i, *e-ban-i
Meaning: to give
Basque forms: eman
Meaning: to give


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *?i-x|:w|ix|:w|ar-
NEC parallels: *=iG_wA>r 'dry, to dry' (often reduplicated)

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *ei(h)aR
Meaning: dry
Basque forms: eihar, igar
Meaning: dry


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *?i-x|:wV-dV (-t.V)
NEC parallels: *=u>GwV 'to rain'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *e-ur-i
Meaning: rain
Basque forms: euri, ebri
Meaning: rain


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *?i-x|o-m-
NEC parallels: *=a":x|V 'to break, destroy'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *e-obi
Meaning: to hit
Basque forms: jo
Meaning: to hit


Ibero-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *?i-z|:we?-mV
NEC parallels: *z|_we>rhy> 'name'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *iz-eN
Meaning: name
Basque forms: izen
Meaning: name

Comments: Basque izen 'name' despite some phonetic resemblance, cannot be related to Semitic *'sm. As pointed by Larry Trask, Berber is@m 'name' is a transparent loanword from Arabic ism id., and it is not a possible source for the Basque word. It is mere chance resemblance.


Ibero-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *?i-z|:we?V
NEC parallels: *z|_we>rhy> 'name'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *(h)iz
Meaning: word
Basque forms: hitz
Meaning: word


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *?i-z|:wV
NEC parallels: *z|_wha>ri: / *z|_wa>hri: 'star' (most probably
an old compound to be divided in *z|_wa>h- + *ri:hV-)

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *iz-aR 1, *iz-pi, *iz-ki 2
Meaning: 1 star 2 bright thing
Basque forms: izar 1, iz-ki, iz-pi 2
Meaning: 1 star 2 sun beam

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *e-izek-i, *e-izio-bi
Meaning: to burn, to ignite, to blaze
Basque forms: izeki, izio
Meaning: to burn


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *?i-z|wVl-dV- (-t.V-)
NEC parallels: *=i:z|wVl/ 'to fall, crumble; stumble, slide'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *e-tzuL-i
Meaning: to turn; to roll
Basque forms: itzuli
Meaning: to turn; to roll


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *?o:c:V-nV
NEC parallels: *?wy:nc_V> 'spring, source'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *osin
Meaning: deepest point of a river; well
Basque forms: osin
Meaning: deepest point of a river; well


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *?onc:V-wV
NEC parallels: *c_EnV (~ *nEc_V) 'a relative in the 2d/3d
generation'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *oso-ba
Meaning: uncle
Basque forms: osaba
Meaning: uncle


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform step 1: *?op:-s^:V-rV-s:V
Protoform step 2: *?op-s^-rV-s:V
Protoform step 3: *?ozrV-s:V
NEC parallels: *=i>rbE> 'to sew'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *oR-az
Meaning: needle
Basque forms: orratz
Meaning: needle


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *?urs^:i:
NEC parallels: *=HrV>js/_E: 'thick, dense, fat'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *usi
Meaning: dense
Basque forms: usi
Meaning: dense; woods

Comments: Massimo Pallottino quotes the Sardinian toponyms Usai and Useis thinking they belong here. Many Vasconists are skeptical.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *?y:lx|a-qyx:V-nV-rV
NEC parallels: *?wa":rl^._V (~ -L^-) 'nut' + *qa"wx_wV 'nut'
(< *'kernel fruit')

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *elza-(h)u(n)R
Meaning: nut
Basque forms: eltzaur, intzaur
Meaning: nut

Comments: The labial consonant regularly vanished because of the following /-y:-/ vowel.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *?yrV-
NEC parallels: *ra"?wV: / ?wa"rV: 'season'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *ur-te
Meaning: year
Basque forms: urte
Meaning: year

Comments: The suffix -te is an old word meaning 'division' > 'time'. So 'the time of seasons' = 'year'. The labial consonant regularly vanished because of the following /-y-/ vowel.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform step 1: *-awqe:-
Protoform step 2: *-a(w)ge
NEC parallels: *l/a>wqV: / *-a>wqV:l/ 'many, enough'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *-age
Meaning: plural suffix
Basque forms: -ak, -e-
Meaning: plural suffix


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *ba:mbu-(rV), *ba:mbu-s:V
NEC parallels: *ba":mbV 'a k. of insect, beetle'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *banbu- 1, *banbu-R 1,2,
*banbu-z 3
Meaning: 1 ghost 2 insect
Basque forms: mamu 1, mamur 1,2, mamutz 3
Meaning: 1 ghost 2 monster 3 insect
Comments: Cfr. also mamurio 'cockroach', mamarru caterpillar.

Paleo-Sardinian Etymology :
Protoform: *bambV-
Meaning: ghost, demon
Paleo-Sardinian: *mammu
Comments: Sardinian mamu, mamuthone id.

Comments: An expressive and widespread root , found also in Greek bo/mbos 'bumblebee', bo/mbyks 'a k. of caterpillar'.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *be:c.:wo
NEC parallels: *by:mc._wA> 'arm; bone (of arm or leg)'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *beso
Meaning: arm
Basque forms: beso
Meaning: arm


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *b-e:lt.:VrV (w-, m-)
NEC parallels: *=V:rl^._V(r) 'to be scared, afraid'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *belduR, *beL(h)uR
Meaning: fear
Basque forms: beldur, bildur, bilur
Meaning: fear


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *be:x|:V
NEC parallels: *bHe:ml^_y> (~ -u>, -i) 'deer, mountain goat'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *be(h)i, *beC-
Meaning: cow
Basque forms: behi, bet-
Meaning: cow

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *be-(h)iL-(h)egi
Meaning: *doe-coloured > yellowish; reddish
Basque forms: beilegi
Meaning: yellowish; reddish

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *be-(h)oR
Meaning: mare
Basque forms: behor 1, beho-ka 2
Meaning: 1 mare 2 colt


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *bi-?i-n-i (w-, m-)
NEC parallels: *=i?wV-(n) 'to say'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *bini
Meaning: tongue
Basque forms: mihi
Meaning: tongue


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *bi-?is:i
NEC parallels: *?_a>ms_a 'sky, cloud; soul, breath; god'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *bizi
Meaning: life
Basque forms: bizi
Meaning: life


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform step 1: *bilwV-jols:V
Protoform step 2: *bilu-dors^:V
NEC parallels: *bha">l^.wi> 'small cattle'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *bil-dos
Meaning: lamb (lit. male lamb)
Basque form: bildots
Meaning: lamb


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *biz|-a-rV
NEC parallels: *bilz|/V 'beard'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *biz-aR
Meaning: beard
Basque forms: bizar
Meaning: beard


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *bo:nz|:V
NEC parallels: *bo:nz|_(w)V 'a k. of vessel'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *bonzi
Meaning: vessel
Basque forms: ontzi, untzi
Meaning: vessel; ship


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *buhu
NEC parallels: *bu>hu 'owl'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *lu-bu(h)u
Meaning: spider
Basque forms: lupu, lipu
Meaning: spider
Comments: An ancient compound whose first member is lur 'earth'. Literally 'earth owl' > 'spider'. Cfr. also luhartz scorpion < lur + hartz 'bear'.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *buhu-m-s:V (-n-)
NEC parallels: *bu>hu 'owl'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *bo-(h)onza
Meaning: owl
Basque forms: hontz(a)
Meaning: owl

Comments: For the suffixes compare into Avaro-Andian the Akhvakh form bu-s:e; into Lezghian tha Agul (dialectal) buhum.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *bV-x|:warV (w-, m-)
NEC parallels: *=irx|_wVr 'to rejoice'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *baRe
Meaning: laugh (n.)
Basque forms: barre, parre, farre
Meaning: laugh (n.)


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *c^.e?V-s^:V-k.V
NEC parallels: *c./a>?_V 'reed, cane; arrow'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *seska
Meaning: reed
Basque forms: seska
Meaning: reed

Comments: From Vasconic the word was borrowed into Celtic, compare Irish seisc 'carex', with no convincing IE etymology.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *c^.ykwe
NEC parallels: *c^.u">kwV / *c^.u">k.wV 'to be hooked, curved;
hook'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *suge
Meaning: snake
Basque forms: suge
Meaning: snake
Comments: Notice Sugaar "Male Snake" and Herensuge "Three-headed Snake" (mythological beings).


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *c^:ahilV
NEC parallels: *c^_Ha"l/u 'earth, ground, sand'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *sa(h)iL
Meaning: ground; plot of land; field
Basque forms: sail
Meaning: ground; plot of land; field


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *c^:aw-k.V
NEC parallels: *=ic^_V(w) 'to hit, break, wound'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *saki
Meaning: wound
Basque forms: saki
Meaning: wound


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *c^a?V
NEC parallels: *c^A>rHV (~ -l-) 'stomach, abomasum'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *sa-beL
Meaning: stomach; belly
Basque forms: sa-bel
Meaning: stomach; belly


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *c.:al
NEC parallels: *c._o>l/V 'branch; tree'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *sar-, *san-
Meaning: *tree, *bush, *vegetation
Pre-Basque forms: sar-zi 1, san-as 2, sar-de 3
Basque forms: sasi 1, sahats 2, sarde 3
Meaning: 1 groove; bramble bush 2 willow 3 pitchfork
Comments: The strange form *san- may derive from the assimilation of some form with *-p-, such as **san-pas. Being the second members of all these compounds totally obscure, we can only guess it.

Iberian Etymology :
Paleo-Iberian protoform: *c.:arV-
Meaning: vegetation
Iberian: *sar-da
Iberian Meaning: bush
Comments: From this word comes Span. sarda id., a substratum item widespread in the Iberian peninsula but not found in Basque.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *c.:al-qa:rV
NEC parallels: *c._o>l/V 'branch; tree' + *qHu":re (~ *qu":R?_e)
'pear'; 'apple'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *sa-gaR
Meaning: apple
Basque forms: sagar
Meaning: apple
Comments: Compounds nouns sagardi 'orchard' < sagar + toki 'place', sagardo 'cider' < sagar + ardo.

Comments: Probably a folk-etymology disguising an old Asiatic loanword (compare Sumerian h_ash_ur 'apple', itself a borrowing from some unknown source).


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *c.:an?V
NEC parallels: *c._we>nhV (~ *c._e>mhV) 'salt' < '*bitter'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *san-biN
Meaning: bitter
Basque forms: samin
Meaning: bitter
Comments: A fossilized compound with min 'pain' < *biN.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *c.:o
NEC parallels: *=a>mc.E> 'to know, to see'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *so
Meaning: sight
Basque forms: so
Meaning: sight


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *c.uju
NEC parallels: *c.a>jy> 'fire'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *su-(h)u, *suC-
Meaning: fire
Basque forms: su, sut-
Meaning: fire

Comments: Phonetic correspondences are quite regular.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *c.wV:lV
NEC parallels: *c.wi:lV 'rag, flock (of wool)'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *sale
Meaning: net
Basque forms: sare
Meaning: net


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *c:uni
NEC parallels: *c_EnV (~ *nEc_V) 'a relative in the 2d/3d
generation'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *suni
Meaning: son-in-law
Basque forms: suhi, suin
Meaning: son-in-law


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *ca:rg|u
NEC parallels: *ca:rg_wV 'weasel, marten'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *sagu, *saC-
Meaning: mouse
Basque forms: sagu, sat-
Meaning: mouse
Comments: There are several compounds: sator 'mole' < sagu + *-oR; satandre 'weasel' < sagu + andere; satitsu 'shrew' < sagu + itsu; satsuri 'field mouse' < sagu + zuri; saturdin 'field mouse' < sagu + urdin. There is also a noticeable adjective: satsu 'dirty, coarse' < sagu + -tsu.

Comment: Phonetic correspondences are regular.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *de:-da
NEC parallels: *?_a":dV 'thing; interrogative pronoun'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *ze-r
Meaning: what (interrogative pronoun)
Basque forms: zer
Meaning: what (interrogative pronoun)

Description of NC relatives (from Starostin):

NEC protoform: *?_a":dV
Meaning: thing; interrogative pronoun

Andian Etymology :
Protoform: *[h]idV
Meaning: 1 thing 2 what (interrog. pronoun)
Chamalal: ed 2
Tindi: eja 1, e-la 2
Karata: hede-la 1, hed 2
Comments: Cf. also a tabooistic use in Tind. eja 'penis'. The semantic correlation 'thing' - 'what' (interrog. pronoun) is also observed elsewhere, cf. e.g. PN *fu-(n) 'what' - *fu-ma 'thing' etc.

Tsezian Etymology :
Protoform: *ho|dV (~ h_-, -a-)
Meaning: instrument, tool
Bezhita: hada
Comments: Since this root is used in Andian languages both to denote 'thing' and the interrogative pronoun 'what', it seems quite probable that it was also used by the Tsez. language (in a reduplicated shape) for some of its interrogative pronouns: Tsez. didiju 'which', didu-r 'how'.

Khinalug Etymology :
Khinalug: de-l
Meaning: where
Comments: Kibrik-Kodzasov-Olovjannikova 1972 have the notation t:e-l (one wonders whether the form ta"-killi 'from where' is not a misspelling for *da"-killi).

NWC protoform: *t:V
Meaning: an interrogative stem
Abkhaz: -da
Abaza: -da
Adyghe: ta:-r
Circassian: da-r
Ubykh: da-, dG|a-
Comments: PAT *-da (an interrogative suffix meaning 'who' in verbal forms); PAK *t:a- - an interrogative stem, used in several pronouns (Ad. ta-da, t@-da 'where', ta:-r 'which', Kab. da-na 'where', da-ps/a 'how much', dar 'which'); Ub. da-, dG|a- - an interrogative prefix ('how', 'in which way').

Comments: Cf. also HU: Hurr. ed@ 'body, thing', Ur. edi- 'thing' (see Diakonoff-Starostin 1986, 26). It is not quite clear which meaning is original - 'thing' or 'what', because both are rather widely reflected.
We should also mention a quite isolated form: Lak. ta 'when', which has an irregular devoiced t-, but possibly reflects the same EC root.

Comments: An ancient reduplicative.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *dimq.:wa/-s:V (t:-)
NEC parallels: *Hrimq._wV> 'ashes, soot'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *i(n)kaz
Meaning: coal
Basque forms: ikatz, inkatz
Meaning: coal

Comments: Initial *d- (*t:-) in pretonic sillable failed to develope into a sibilant.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *duc^V-(s:V)
NEC parallels: *du>c^V 'wood, firewood'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *zoz
Meaning: piece of wood
Basque forms: zotz
Meaning: piece of wood


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *dV-h_wV/m-ri-nV (t:V-)
NEC parallels: *Hmi>h|wV-(rV) 'smell, odour'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *(t)uRin
Meaning: smell, odour
Basque forms: urrin, lurrin
Meaning: smell, odour
Comments: The the initial liquid in the variant lurrin is the remnant of an old vanished class prefix. This is also proven by the compound minturrin 'stench' < min 'sharp; pain' + urrin.

Comments: Initial *d- (*t:-) in pretonic sillable failed to develope into a sibilant.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *fabe: / *faba:-rV
NEC parallels: *hwe>be: 'post, pole; tower'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *(h)abe, *ab-aR
Meaning: beam, branch
Basque forms: (h)abe 1, abar 2
Meaning: 1 beam 2 branch


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *fars:V-kV
NEC parallels: *hwyrs_V- 'crib, manger'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *ars-ka
Meaning: manger
Basque forms: aska
Meaning: manger

Comments: The apical sound in Pre-Basque (formerly laminal) is quite regular in a similar context.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *fo:rkwa:
NEC parallels: *hw@:lkwe: 'carriage, vehicle; wheel'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *orga
Meaning: carriage
Basque forms: orga
Meaning: carriage

Comments: Probably a remote Wanderwort. As carriages were not found in Paleolithic or Mesolithic Europe, there are only two solutions to this problem: 1 - Basque was Paleolithic or Mesolithic and this item is a loanword, I can guess from Tyrrhenian; 2 - Basque is Neolithic and this word is intrinsically native. Included here because in any way NEC-related.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform step 1: *fo:rx|:V-
Protoform step 2: *fo:rrV-
NEC parallels: *wHa:rl^._w@ 'boar, pig'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *ur-de(n), *or-dos
Meaning: swine
Basque forms: urde, urdan- 1, ordots 2
Meaning: 1 pig 2 boar
Comments: The form ordots is a compound with *-(d)os 'male (human or animal)'. There is also urdanga 'sow' < *urdan-da. Interesting is urdan-degi 'pigsty', with a compound form urdan-.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *fo:r-z|wV
NEC parallels: *hwe:ri 'morning' < '*light' + *z|@>wy> 'sky'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *(h)orzi
Meaning: sky
Basque forms: (h)ortz, ortzi, orz-, os(t)-
Meaning: sky; cloudy sky, cloud
Comments: Compound nouns are orzantz 'thunder' < ortzi + azantz 'roar', orzkorri 'tempest' < ortzi + gorri 'red', ostroi 'tempest' < ortzi + erroi 'raven'.

Comments: An old compound with NEC *hwe:ri 'morning', but formerly 'light of the sky'. Phonetic correspondences seems to be regular.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *G|a:li
NEC parallels: *G_o:l?e- 'wheat'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *gali
Meaning: wheat
Basque forms: gari, gal-
Meaning: wheat
Comments: Compound nouns are galgorri 'a k. of wheat' < gari + gorri 'red'; galirin 'wheat flour' < gari + irin 'flour'; galarri 'stone for corn grinding' < gari + harri 'stone'; galauts 'remnant of corn' < gari + hauts 'ash, powder'; galbahe 'sieve' < gari + bahe 'sieve'; galbizar 'awn' < gari + bizar 'beard'; galburu 'ear of corn' < gari + buru 'head'; galtegi 'barn' < gari + (t)egi 'shelter'; galtzuri 'white corn' < gari + zuri 'white'.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *G|a-jV-s:V
NEC parallels: *h|a>G_A> 'sin; enemy' (< *'abnormality')

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *gaiz, *gaiz-to
Meaning: abnormal, huge > evil
Basque forms: gaitz, gaizto, -kaitz, -kaizto, -kaizten
Meaning: bad; evil


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *G|a-rV / *G|e-rV
NEC parallels: *h|a>G_A> 'sin; enemy' (< *'abnormality')

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *-geR, *-keR / *-gaR,
*-kaR
Meaning: abnormal, huge > evil
Basque forms: -ger, -ker, -gar, -kar
Meaning: bad; evil
Comments: As a separate element is no longer vital, but it's still found in several fossilized compounds.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform step 1: *G|umdi
Protoform step 2: *g|ud|i
NEC parallels: *G|we>mdV 'day'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *gozi
Meaning: morning
Basque forms: goiz
Meaning: morning

Comments: We must note the assibilation of the dental stop, due to the front final vowel.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *Ga-jV-nV
NEC parallels: *=a":GV 'to stand up; to erect; high'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *gaina
Meaning: top
Basque forms: gain, gan
Meaning: top


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *Ga-lV
NEC parallels: *=a":GV 'to stand up; to erect; high'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *gala 1, *gala-i 2
Meaning: 1 top 2 high place
Basque forms: garai
Meaning: high place


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *Go-ni
NEC parallels: *=a":GV 'to stand up; to erect; high'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *goni
Meaning: hill; height; sky
Basque forms: go(h)i
Meaning: hill; height; sky
Commments: An interesting compound is goibel 'dark sky, tempest'.

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *goni-buru
Meaning: excess
Basque forms: gonburu
Meaning: excess

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *goni-ko
Meaning: sky
Basque forms: goiko
Meaning: sky

Comments: A root gon- is found also in Sardinia and in areas of Southern Italy (Calabria) as gonu, gonnu 'hill, hillock'. It is surely a substratum item, a remnant of a Vasconic-related pre-IE language.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *Go-ni-lV
NEC parallels: *=a":GV 'to stand up; to erect; high'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *goni-la
Meaning: high
Basque forms: gora
Meaning: high

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *goni-l-eN
Meaning: the highest; mountain top
Basque forms: goren
Meaning: the highest; mountain top

Comments: An ancient fossilized allative in *-la of *goni 'hill'. Probably a similar formation is found in Sardinian golle/i, olle/i 'hillock', of pre-Roman origin.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *Gwa:bi
NEC parallels: *Gwa:bV 'root' < '*stake'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *gabi
Meaning: little hammer
Basque forms: gabi
Meaning: little hammer


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *(ga)gwa/-s:V-dV (-t.V)
NEC parallels: *Ha:gwV 'small' (> 'bad')

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *gazte
Meaning: young
Basque forms: gazte
Meaning: young

Comments: The old adjective had surely the primitive meaning of 'small' and developed to 'bad' in NEC, to 'young' in Proto-Vasconic.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *gu:rgV-dV (-t.V)
NEC parallels: *gi:rgwV 'circle, round'; > 'wheel'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *gur-di
Meaning: cart, carriage
Basque forms: gurdi, burdi
Meaning: cart, carriage
Comments: Cfr. gurpil 'wheel' < gurdi 'cart' + -bil 'round'. Phonetics is quite regular.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *gus^e:
NEC parallels: *gas^e:- / *gus^e:- 'hunger'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *gose
Meaning: hunger
Basque forms: gose
Meaning: hunger

Comments: An old Wanderwort, found also in Afro-Asiatic and in Sumerian.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *gwi:-gV (-k.V)
NEC parallels: *q.Hwa":

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *biga
Meaning: two
Basque forms: biga, bi
Meaning: two

Comments: The labialization of the ancient labiovelar is noticeable.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *gwo:rV-
NEC parallels: *gwe:rV 'circle, round, to roll'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *-boR
Meaning: something round
Basque forms: -bor
Meaning: something round
Comments: Found only in ancient compound words: zil-bor 'navel', opor 'bowl' (< 'round vessel).

Comments: The labialization of the ancient labiovelar is noticeable. Similar forms are found in Northern Italy in Gallo-Italic dialects: bora 'big stem' (< *borra:), borla 'to roll down'.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *h_i:, *h_a- / *-G|a
NEC parallels: *G|wV:- 'thou' (obl. base)

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *(h)i, *(h)a- / *-ga
Meaning: thou
Basque forms: hi, ha- / -k
Meaning: thou

Comments: The old form was originally the oblique base, then extended to all the paradigm. Probably Proto-Vasconic protoforms go back to: *h_u-i:, *h_u-a- / *-G|u-a.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *h_wa:rx|V-
NEC parallels: *?|wa:rx|V 'mountain pass; hollow, cavern'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *baRun (-N), *baRu-
Meaning: hollow; inside
Basque forms: barrun 1, barrena 2
Meaning: 1 hollow, cave 2 inside
Comments: Cfr. also barrunbe 'cavern' < barrun + behe 'below'.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *h_wamc.:V
NEC parallels: *h|wmi>c._e> 'a coniferous tree'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *baso
Meaning: forest
Basque forms: baso
Meaning: forest
Comments: Compounds are basurde 'boar' (archaic basaurde) < baso + urde 'pig'; basahuntz 'deer' < baso + ahuntz 'goat', basasto 'wild ass' < baso + asto; basarbi 'mustard' < baso + arbi 'turnip'; basur 'dew; flood waters on the mountains' < baso + ur 'water'. The adjective basa 'savage' is probably only a retroformation from compounds with basa-.

Comments: Cfr. Proto-Nakh *bac.a 'fir-tree', Lak wac.a 'forest'. This item is well reconstructed for NEC and there is even a NWC parallel. As coniferous forests are rare in Caucasus but common in Glacial Europe, this must be a particularly archaic remnant.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *h_wel-k.V
NEC parallels: *?_wi>l?_i 'eye'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *begi, *beC-
Meaning: eye
Basque forms: begi, bet-
Meaning: eye
Comments: There is a plenty of compounds: bepuru 'eyebrow' < begi + buru 'head'; bekain 'eyebrow < begi + gain 'top'; betsein 'pupil' < begi + sein 'child'; betile 'eyelash' < begi + ile 'wool, hair'.

Comments: The suffix *-k.V was an ancient diminutive (Cfr. the Nakh forms).


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *h_wemt.V-pe:lV
NEC parallels: *h|wVmt.V 'red' + *Hpe:l/V: 'vein, sinew, pipe'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *bodoL
Meaning: blood
Basque forms: odol
Meaning: blood

Comments: Remotely related with pre-IE Germanic *bhla:dh- > Proto-Germanic *blo:da- id., possibly from a compound constructed with the same members in reverse order: *pe:lV-h_wemt.V.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform step 1: *h_wen?V
Protoform step 2: *wed?V / *wen?V
NEC parallels: *?|wa>n?|V 'ear'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *ben-aRi / *ber-aRi
Meaning: ear
Basque forms: belarri, beharri
Meaning: ear


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *h_wenV-dV (-t.V)
NEC parallels: *fa>nV-dV 'mountain, hill'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *ben-di
Meaning: mountain
Basque forms: mendi
Meaning: mountain

Comments: A very widespread substratum relict. It is found even in Burushaski. Probably the NEC protoform *fa>nV-dV goes back to a previous *h_wan-.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *h_wil?V-
NEC parallels: *?_wil?_a> 'wheel'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *-biL
Meaning: something round
Basque forms: -bil
Meaning: something round

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *bili-biL / *bolo-biL
Meaning: something round
Basque forms: biribil, borobil
Meaning: something round


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *h_wi-l-nV (-r-)
NEC parallels: *=a>h|wV 'edge, point; face'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *biN
Meaning: point; sharp; pain
Basque forms: min
Meaning: point; pain


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *h_wo:mV
NEC parallels: *h|wo:m-dV 'brain' (-dV should be analysed as
suffix, cfr. the Andi forms)

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *bune
Meaning: marrow; brain
Basque forms: muin, fuin
Meaning: marrow; brain

Comments: Suggestions often made of a derivation from Latin fu:ne(m) 'rope, cord' should be dismissed, due to terrible semantic difficulties. Even Trask is not so enthusiastic with a similar attempt of derivation and accept it only because it can subtract a word to external comparison. The compound garun 'brain' is more probably formed with gara 'top' + gun(e) 'center midth'.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *h_wot.e-nV
NEC parallels: *h|wa>t.i (~ -e) 'a cereal; flour, dough made of
it'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *bor-(h)e(n)
Meaning: dough
Basque forms: ore
Meaning: dough
Comments: In the aspirating dialects it is orhe.

Comments: Final nasal suffix is reconstructed in order to account for the puzzling Roncalese form o~rhe.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *haqwV-s^:V
NEC parallels: *HV>qwA> 'pig, swine'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *-(h)aus
Meaning: swine
Basque forms: her-aus
Meaning: boar
Aquitanian form: Her-aus-
Aquitanian meaning: Boar

Comments: The Basque word is actually an old compound whos first member is an IE loanword *ebro- 'boar' (for further details see Non-NEC Vasconic).


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform step 1: *haxo-nV-dV (-t.V)
Protoform step 2: *aho-ni-di
Protoform step 3: *a/w-ni-di
NEC parallels: *h|ax|e- 'big'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *(h)a(u)n-di
Meaning: big, great
Basque forms: handi, haundi
Meaning: big, great
Aquitanian form: Andi, And-
Aquitanian maeaning: big, great

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *e-aun
Meaning: exalted man > sir
Basque forms: jaun
Meaning: sir
Comments: Not found in Aquitanian onomastic items.

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *e-au-e
Meaning: master
Basque forms: jabe
Meaning: master

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *e-a(u)ni-ko
Meaning: supreme being > God
Basque forms: Jainko
Meaning: God
Comments: Probably a dialectal eastern form then spread also in western dialects. Vasconists consider it of uncertain origin, but it is difficult to keep it apart from jaun.

Iberian Etymology :
Paleo-Iberian protoform: *haxo-
Meaning: big, great
Iberian: aunin, auni
Comments: A female person name Auni(n) is well documented.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *hex|:wV-m-
NEC parallels: *He>mx|_wV-n- 'to grind'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *e(h)o-bi
Meaning: to grind
Basque forms: eho
Meaning: to grind

Comments: A prefixless verbal stem.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *hi:mhi-s:V
NEC parallels: *h|wmi:h|wi:- 'lake, pool'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *in-i(n)-z
Meaning: dew
Basque forms: ihitz
Meaning: dew
Comments: A dialectal form iruntz points to an ancient dissimilation. Noticeable compounds are intzigar = ihintz + igar (lit. 'dry dew'), izotz = ihintz + hotz (lit. 'cold dew'). This formations destroy the illusion of a match with Germanic *i:s- 'ice'.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *-hi
NEC parallels: *-Hi 'dative'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *-e
Meaning: dative / locative ending
Basque forms: -e
Meaning: dative / locative ending (obsolete)
Comments: The ending is till observed in fossilized forms like are 'even' (a locative of the pronoun har).
Aquitanian form: -e
Aquitanian meaning: dative
Comments: The ending is attested in theonyms.

Iberian Etymology :
Paleo-Iberian protoform: *-hi
Meaning: dative
Iberian: -ei, -e

Description of NC relatives (from Starostin):

NEC etymology: *-Hi
Meaning: 'dative'

Andian Etymology :
Protoform: *-jV
Meaning: 1 dat. 2 dat. anim. 3 infinitive
Avar: -e 1, (nas.) -ne 3
Andi: -j 1
Chamalal: -i 2
Karata: -ja, -wa 1
Botlikh: -i, -j 1, -i 3
Godoberi: -i, nas. -i~ 3
Comments: Av. dat. -e (in dialects: class marker+e) may also reflect the original affective case.

Tsezian Etymology :
Protoform: *-V(j)
Meaning: 1 erg. 2 dat. 3 infinitive
Tsezi: -a 1, 3
Ginukh: -j 1, -a 3
Inkhokvari: -a, -@, -i, -o 1, -a 3
Bezhita: [obl. stem+]-0 1
Gunzib: -i, -V: 2, -a 3

Lak Etymology :
Lak: -j-nu, -ija
Meaning: 1 instrumental 2 deverbative nominal suffix

Dargwa Etymology :
Protoform: *-Hi
Meaning: 1 ergative 2 instrumental
Akusha: -i 1, (c^ib)-l-i 2

Lezghian Etymology :
Protoform: *-i (-Vj)
Meaning: 1 deverbative nominal 2 masdar
Tsakhur: -i 2
Archi: -i 1
Udi: -i 1

Khinalug Etymology :
Khinalug: -i(j)
Meaning: 1 ergative / genitive 2 infinitive

Comments: Cf. also Hurr. -ae, Ur. -ai, -ae, -aj@ 'adverbial, adjectival, gerundial or participial suffix'. Some of the modern forms without -j may actually reflect some other case (perhaps essive), or just a pure oblique stem.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *hilt.:i:
NEC parallels: *Hi>l^._i:wV(-l/V:) 'root, seed; kin'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *eL(h)i
Meaning: group of men or animals, flock
Basque forms: eli
Meaning: flock

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *(h)ili
Meaning: town
Basque forms: hiri, uri
Meaning: town

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *(h)iluna
Meaning: ancient town
Basque forms: irun
Meaning: ancient town

Iberian Etymology :
Paleo-Iberian protoform: *hilt.:i-rV / *hilt.:u-nV
Meaning: city, town
Old Iberian: iltir', iltur, iltun-
Late Iberian: ilir, ilur, ilun-, elun-

Comments: The Pre-Basque protoform for 'town, city' could hardly be an irregular but genuine output of a Proto-Vasconic form (the regular form is eli 'flock'). Most probably hiri is a cultural loanword from Iberian, with medial liquid adopted as simple, and not as fortis. Suggestions of links with Sumerian ur(u) or with the ancient toponym Iria found in Iberia can be safely dismissed.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *hilt.:V-rV
NEC parallels: *Hi>l^._i:wV(-l/V:) 'root, seed; kin'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *(h)eRo
Meaning: root
Basque forms: herro, erro
Meaning: root

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *(h)eRoea
Meaning: root
Basque forms: zuzterrai, zuztrai, sustrai
Meaning: root
Comments: First member is zur 'wood': *zu-z-t-erroea.

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *(h)oRi, *(h)oRi-z-to
Meaning: leaf
Basque forms: horri, orri, o(r)sto
Meaning: leaf


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *hilV-dV
NEC parallels: *l^He> 'three'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *(h)il-ur
Meaning: three
Basque forms: hirur, hiru
Meaning: three

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *(h)el-er-eN
Meaning: third
Basque forms: heren
Meaning: one third


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *ho:lc^.wV
NEC parallels: *hc./wa:lo: 'voice, sound, word'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *(h)os
Meaning: voice, sound
Basque forms: hots
Meaning: voice, sound
Comments: Compounds: ospe 'fame' < hots + behe 'down'; ahots 'voice' < aho 'mouth' (< *ano) + hots.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *hocV
NEC parallels: *cH@> 'one'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *oso
Meaning: whole; entire(ly)
Basque forms: oso
Meaning: whole; entire(ly)


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *hre:mq.:i
NEC parallels: *Hre:mq._i> 'road'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *eRe(h)i, *eReC-
Meaning: road, path
Basque forms: errei, erret-
Meaning: road, path
Comments: The existence of the form errei warrants its presence in the compound errepide 'road' (wrongly believed to be derived from errege 'king').


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *hu:?VmpV-(dV) (-t.V)
NEC parallels: *h|wijVmpu> 'spring (ver)'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *u-da
Meaning: summer
Basque forms: uda
Meaning: summer
Comments: See also udaberri, spring (ver) < uda + berri 'new'.

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *u-da-li
Meaning: fruit
Basque forms: udare, madari
Meaning: pear

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *un-beL
Meaning: *lukewarm (climate) > ripe (fruit)
Basque forms: umel
Meaning: ripe (fruit)

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *un-o
Meaning: *lukewarm (climate) > ripe (fruit)
Basque forms: umo
Meaning: ripe (fruit)
Comments: Notice umao, imao 'jam' < *un-ano.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *hu:c^.V
NEC parallels: *h|@:c./E>- 'hollow, empty'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *(h)us
Meaning: naked; empty
Basque forms: huts, -uts
Meaning: naked; empty


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *hwV-nV
NEC parallels: *=a:hV 'small, little'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *bene
Meaning: narrow, thin; weak
Basque forms: mehe
Meaning: narrow, thin; weak

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *bene-(h)aR
Meaning: lane, alley
Basque forms: mehar
Meaning: lane, alley
Aquitanian form: Benehar-no
Aquitanian meaning: Place of the Lane

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *bene-(h)az
Meaning: mine
Basque forms: mehatz
Meaning: mine

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *ben-dere
Meaning: little; less; esiguous
Basque forms: mendre
Meaning: little; less; weak
Comments: The second member of the compound is possibly an ancient word for 'female'.

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *ben-geL
Meaning: weak; esiguous
Basque forms: mendre
Meaning: weak
Comments: Second member of the compound obscure.

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *ben-s-
Meaning: lack (n.); to lack
Basque forms: ments 1, mens-tu (ments, mens-ten) 2
Meaning: 1 lack, scarcity 2 to lack


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform step 1: *hyrik.:V
Protoform step 2: *hyrik.
NEC parallels: *h|rVk._wV: 'woman, female'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *uRi-za(h)a
Meaning: female
Basque forms: urritxa, urrixa
Meaning: female (of animal)

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *uRi
Meaning: woman
Archaic Basque: urri
Meaning: woman
Comments: An obsolete Ancient Basque word. Quoted from Trombetti, thus not very reliable as documented item (although quite probable).


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *jamz|a-
NEC parallels: *ja>mz|A> 'snow' < '*something cold'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *(h)oz
Meaning: cold
Basque forms: hotz
Meaning: cold

Comments: A remnant of an old situation in which nouns and adjectives were not well differentiated. The reconstructed protoform is based on a NEC root which seems to be better than several others.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *jilwV-rV
NEC parallels: *ji>wl|V / *l|i>wV 'snow'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *er-uR
Meaning: snow
Basque forms: elur, edur
Meaning: snow


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *jok.wo/-qwonV
NEC parallels: *je>rk.wi> 'heart' + *=eqwVn 'to forget' (also 'to
remember')

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *gogo(n)
Meaning: memory; soul
Basque forms: gogo
Meaning: memory; soul
Comments: Compound forms in got- such as gotzain 'bishop' are inventions of Sabino Arana (defined 'ugly' by Larry Trask, and I agree).


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform step 1: *jols:V, *jols^:V
Protoform step 2: *dors:V, *dors^:V
NEC parallels: *j@ls_V- 'vir, maritus'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *(h)os, *-(d)os
Meaning: male (human or animal)
Basque forms: -ots
Meaning: male (animale)
Aquitanian Forms: -hoxs 1, An-doxs- 2
Meaning: 1 male 2 lord, sir

Comments: The ancient meaning of this root must have been more extended than in NEC proto-Language. Pre-Basque reflexes of the sibilant reflect a rhotic reduced consonantal cluster. Apicalization of the old laminal is caused by the preceding *-r-. An initial assibilation of the old voiced dental was probably prevented in isolation by dissimilation.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *k.:woni-
NEC parallels: *k._wVnV 'mastix, tar' < '*oily substance'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *goni-be(h)e
Meaning: oily substance (especially of vegetable origin)
Basque forms: koipe
Meaning: oil

Comments: Second member of the compound rather obscure.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *k.:wV:rnV:-
NEC parallels: *h|n@:rk._wV: 'urine, urinary bladder'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *gern-ur
Meaning: urine
Basque forms: gernu(r), kernu(r)
Meaning: urine

Comments: There are possible cognates in pre-IE Germanic: *karn- 'urine', 'excrement'. In order to compare the Basque protoform with NEC wer should assume an ancient metathesis. Pre-Basque -ur is probably the word for 'water' agglutinated.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *k.aba-q.walV
NEC parallels: *bHak.V / *k.HabV 'palm of hand, hand' (< *flat
surface) + *q.w@>l?a> 'board'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *apaL
Meaning: shelf
Basque forms: apal
Meaning: shelf
Comments: This word must not be confused with its homophone apal 'humble', which is from Occitanian aval 'low' < Latin ad valle(m).


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform step 1: *k.am:-lek.V
Protoform step 2: *k.al-lek.
NEC parallels: *h|a>mk.i / *k.a>mh|i 'seed, grain' + *le>k.V
'grain, fruit stone'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *aL-(h)e
Meaning: seed, grain
Basque forms: ale
Meaning: seed, grain

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *aL-(h)oR
Meaning: cultivated field
Basque forms: alor
Meaning: cultivated field


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *k.ama-dV (-t.V)
NEC parallels: *k.e>mhV 'arc; an arched, curved body part' >
'horn'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *an-ari
Meaning: ram
Basque forms: ahari, ahar-zatz
Meaning: ram
Comments: There is also a metathetic dialectal form ahazartz.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *k.am-a-rV
NEC parallels: *k.e>mhV 'arc; an arched, curved body part' >
'horn'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *an-aR
Meaning: curved thing > worm
Basque forms: har, aar
Meaning: worm

Comments: A noticeable word originated from a taboo.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *k.amu-nV-s:V
NEC parallels: *k.e>mhV 'arc; an arched, curved body part' >
'horn'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *an-un-z
Meaning: goat
Basque forms: ahuntz 1, ahuna, ahune 2
Meaning: 1 goat 2 goat kid

Comments: This Basque form is found also in the Alpine area as camo:x, *camo:ssus > Italian camoscio, German Gemse. A root Camu- is well attested in Etruscan onomastical items (see Proto-Tyrrhenian). Compare also the ethnonym Camunni.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *k.a(r)-s:V
NEC parallels: *jVk.V(r)- 'to hurt, feel pain'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *(h)az
Meaning: itch
Basque forms: hatz
Meaning: itch


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *k.as:V
NEC parallels: *k.a">s_y 'finger'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *(h)az
Meaning: thumb; finger
Basque forms: hatz
Meaning: (big) finger


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *k.em-dV (-t.V)
NEC parallels: *k.e>mhV 'arc; an arched, curved body part' >
'horn'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *idi, *iC-
Meaning: ox
Basque forms: idi, it-
Meaning: ox
Comments: Notice also Itohoin 'Orion' < idi + ohoin 'thief'; itzar 'old ox' < idi + zahar; itzain 'buckaroo' < idi + zain 'guard'; Itzaina 'Bootes'; iton 'bovine excrements' (second member still obscure); ikel 'slaughtered ox' (second member still obscure); iteuli 'gadfly' < idi + euli 'fly'.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *k.uk.i
NEC parallels: *k.wy>k.wV> 'cake, cookie'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *ogi, *oC-
Meaning: bread
Basque forms: ogi, ot-
Meaning: bread
Comments: Compound nouns are ope 'a k. of brioche' < ogi + mehe 'narrow', opil 'round loaf' < ogi + bil 'round', okin 'baker' < ogi + egin 'to make', otzara 'basket' < ogi + zare 'basket', otsein 'page(boy), young servant' < ogi + sein 'child'; otil 'unleavened bread' ogi + hil 'dead'.

Paleo-Sardinian Etymology :
Protoform: *k:[u]k:[u]
Meaning: bread
Paleo-Sardinian: *kuk:u/-jV, kok:o/-jV
Comments: Sardinian (Romance) kukku, kukkui, kokkoi 'bread', surely a substratum remnant.

Comments: The suggestion of a borrowing from Coptic oik 'bread' must be dismissed. First, In Old Egyptian the word for 'bread' was tj, and =qjw was a kind of pizza or other food provision (pronounced *=aqji). The /o/ pronounciation is very late, Demotic (see Loprieno). Only in Coptic the word displaced every other item for 'bread'. But at these times there was no cotact between Egyptians and Iberians.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *k.ulV-
NEC parallels: *k.ul/y: 'lock, bolt; key'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *ul-ze(h)e
Meaning: nail
Basque forms: ultze, iltze
Meaning: nail

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *gil-za(h)a
Meaning: key
Basque forms: giltza
Meaning: key
Comments: Possibly an ancient dialectal variant of the word for 'nail'.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *k:wylt.V-z^|Vw-rV-
NEC parallels: *k_wylt.V 'some interior part of body' > 'kidney' +
*z^|a>wV 'kidney; gall'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *gilzuR-in
Meaning: kidney
Basque forms: giltzurrin, giltzurrun, guntzurrun
Meaning: kidney

Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *ke:r-
NEC parallels: *ki:rV (~ -e:-) 'chest; belly, entrails'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *(h)er-ze(h)e
Meaning: entrails; gut
Basque forms: hertze, heste
Meaning: entrails; gut
Comments: The variant heste is more recent and of metathetic nature.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *kwal?i
NEC parallels: *kwe>l?|V 'thread'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *(h)ali
Meaning: thread
Basque forms: hari
Meaning: thread
Comments: Basque haril 'reel, spoil'.

Comments: A noticeable item describing a Neolithic technology.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *kwV?V-rV-
NEC parallels: kwi:l?_V 'hand'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *(h)aR-, *(h)arC-
Meaning: to take
Basque forms: har-tu
Meaning: to take
Comments: The -tu suffix is of course Latin, but we don't know any attestation of the old form with native ending.

Comments: The liquid consonant in the NEC reconstructed protoform was probably not very stable, as we cannot find any trace of it in Vasconic. In various NEC languages there are quite similar compound forms of the word for 'hand'.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *kwVndV- (-t.V)
NEC parallels: *gh|wa>ndV> 'hole, pit'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *hodi
Meaning: tube, channel in the stone
Basque forms: hodi
Meaning: tube, channel in the stone


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform step 1: *kwVn-li
Protoform step 2: *kw|V~li
NEC parallels: *?ikwVn 'to eat'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *-(k)ali
Meaning: dinner
Basque forms: -(k)ari, -(k)al-
Meaning: *dinner, *meal
Comments: This item is found in two compound words: barazkari 'lunch' and afari (auhari, apari) 'supper', whose first member is possibly gau 'night'. The two word are surely native, but underwend some interference with Latin borrowings like bazkatu 'to feed' (< pascere) and apario, apairu 'meal' < *appariu(m).


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform step 1: *kwo:c:V-s:V-k.V
Protoform step 2: *ku:s:-k.i
NEC parallels: *kwy:jc_V 'form, appearance'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *u-z-ki
Meaning: eye
Basque forms: uzki
Meaning: needle's eye

Comments: Initial k- of the root aspirates and regularly vanishes.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *la?a-rV (-h_-)
NEC parallels: *=i?_wVl 'to feed on, to eat; to bite'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *laRe
Meaning: meadow, pasture
Basque forms: larre
Meaning: meadow, pasture

Comments: The suffix -rV is an old collective.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *lapV
NEC parallels: lapV 'glitter, flash' < 'to burn, to blaze'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *labe
Meaning: oven
Basque forms: labe
Meaning: oven


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *laqnV
NEC parallels: *=ilqVn 'to work'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *laN
Meaning: work
Basque forms: lan
Meaning: work


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *la-gVr-mV
NEC parallels: *h|i>gVrV 'near'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *laguN
Meaning: neighbour, friend
Basque forms: lagun
Meaning: friend, companion
Comments: Notice also alargun 'widow(er)' < ez 'no' + lagun 'companion'.

Comments: This item was probably shared by Iberian, as in anthroponyms an element laku(n) is common, but we don't have sufficient evidence for the possibility of a loanword. For the -mV suffix in the Proto-Vasconic reconstruction, see Lak lag-ma 'around'.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform step 1: *lawn-rV
Protoform step 2: *lan-rwV
NEC parallels: *l/e>?wny 'skin (of an animal)'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *laRu, *naRu
Meaning: skin (human or animal)
Basque forms: larru, narru
Meaning: skin
Comments: Cfr. also dialectal Basque lar-me leather < *larru-bene (lit. narrow skin).

Comments: An old plural / collective form.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *la-wy-rV
NEC parallels: *=il^.y>lV 'thin'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *labuR
Meaning: short
Basque forms: labur
Meaning: short


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *lax|:am-rV
NEC parallels: *l/Himq_V 'shame, anxiety'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *laRi
Meaning: afraid, anxious
Basque forms: larri
Meaning: afraid, anxious


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *lax|:i-wV-s:V
NEC parallels: *lHax|_V (~ l/-) 'black' < '*dark'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *la(h)iboz
Meaning: shady place; shady
Basque forms: laiotz
Meaning: shady place; shady


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *ler-s:i-jV
NEC parallels: *l^ErV 'river, rivulet'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *leize
Meaning: riverbed > ravine > abyss
Basque forms: leize, leze
Meaning: abyss; cavity; hollow


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *lol?a-nV
NEC parallels: *l^.@>rHV (~ -l-) 'sour cream; yeast, leaven'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *olan-za(h)a
Meaning: yeast, leaven
Basque forms: orantza
Meaning: yeast, leaven

Comments: An ancient dissimilation occurred.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *lu:x|u-s:V
NEC parallels: *Ha:x|ul/V / *Ha:lx|V 'long'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *luze
Meaning: long
Basque forms: luze
Meaning: long

Comments: The suffix -s:V is an old attibutive.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *lut.V-
NEC parallels: *jet.al- 'to tie, bind; untie'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *loC-
Meaning: to tie
Basque forms: lot(u) 1, loki 2
Meaning: 1 to tie 2 rope


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *lux|:u-rV
NEC parallels: *lhe>mL^_wy> 'earth'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *lu-R
Meaning: earth, land
Basque forms: lur
Meaning: earth, land
Comments: Compound nouns are lupe 'underground, Netherworld' < lur + behe 'down'; lugin 'peasant' < lur + egin 'to do'; luhartz 'scorpion' < lur + hartz 'bear'.

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *lu-be(h)e-z
Meaning: mud
Basque forms: lupetz
Meaning: mud

Comments: The suffix -rV in the protoform is an old collective.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: -lV
NEC parallels: *-l/V 'dative'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *-la, *-la-da
Meaning: allative
Basque forms: -ra, -rat
Meaning: allative
Comments: The eniding is still -la, -lat in Zuberoan.

Description of NEC relatives (from Starostin):

NEC protoform: *-l/V
Meaning: dative

Nakh Etymology :
Protoform: *-la
Meaning: 1 comparative case 2 translative
Chechen: -l, -lla 1, -xu-la 2
Ingush: -l 1, -G|o-lla 2

Andian Etymology :
Protoform: *-l-
Meaning: 1 gen. 2 erg.
Avar: -l 1
Karata: -l 2

Tsezian Etymology :
Protoform: *-lV
Meaning: 1 dat. 2 lative 3 inf. and fut. 4 erg.
Tsezi: -r 1, 2
Ginukh: -r 2
Khvarshi: -l (also instrum.)
Inkhokvari: -l, -li 1, 2
Bezhita: -l 1, 3
Gunzib: -l 4

Lak Etymology :
Lak: -l
Meaning: genitive / ergative

Dargwa Etymology :
Protoform: *-l
Meaning: comitative
Akusha: -(c^i)-l

Khinalug Etymology :
Khinalug: -li
Meaning: general locative


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *lwo:rV
NEC parallels: *l^wy:ri ~ *ry:l^wi 'wheel, vehicle'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *loR
Meaning: transport of a stem
Basque forms: lor 1,2 lor-tu 3
Meaning: 1 transport of a stem 2 transported stem 3 to transport


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *lwo
NEC parallels: *Hral|wE 'to fall, go down'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *lo
Meaning: sleep (n.)
Basque forms: lo
Meaning: sleep (n.)


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *me:hV-k.as:V
NEC parallels: *me:h|wV> 'hand, extremity (anat.)' + *k.a">s_y
'finger'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *be-(h)az
Meaning: thumb
Basque forms: behatz
Meaning: thumb


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *melo
NEC parallels: *mha>lV- ~ *mha>nV- 'warm'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *belo
Meaning: warm, hot
Basque forms: bero
Meaning: warm, hot


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *moz|-
NEC parallels: *mi>z|V 'sweet'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *boz
Meaning: mead
Basque forms: oz-pin
Meaning: vinegar (*acid mead)


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *mu:larV
NEC parallels: *Hr@:ml^V: 'bosom; armful'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *buraR
Meaning: bosom
Basque forms: bular, budar
Meaning: bosom


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *m-u:rx|:u-k:a
NEC parallels: *=V:rG|V 'to fight' + *=VgA>(w) 'to hit, to fight'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *boRo-ka
Meaning: fight
Basque forms: borroka, burruka
Meaning: fight


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform step 1: *mu-da
Protoform step 2: *nu-da
NEC parallels: *mV 'an interrogative stem'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *no-r
Meaning: who (interrogative pronoun)
Basque forms: nor
Meaning: who (interrogative pronoun)

Description of NC relatives (from Starostin):

NEC protoform: *mV
Meaning: an interrogative stem

Nakh Etymology :
Protoform: *mV
Meaning: interrogative stem
Chechen: mila
Ingush: mala
Batsbi: me~
Comments: Widely used in PN, cf. Chech. mi-la who, mu"-lx|a which, mi-c^a where, ma-ca when etc.; Ing. ma-la who, mi-c^a where, ma-ca when etc.; Bacb. me~ who, me-lx|u which, mic^(a) where, maca~ when etc.

Andian Etymology :
Protoform: *?i-mV
Meaning: who (interrog. pronoun)
Andi: emi-
Chamalal: im
Tindi: ima-la
Karata: heme
Botlikh: e~(w)
Bagvalal: em
Comments: The stem *?i-mV- is actually a compound of the interrogative stem *?i- (q.v.) which is also used independently, and the bound stem *-mV-, used only in the 1st and 2d classes.

Dargwa Etymology :
Protoform: *mu-rt
Meaning: when
Akusha: murt
Chiragh: murt

Lezghian Etymology :
Protoform: *mo-sa
Meaning: when
Lezghi: mus
Agul: mus (Tp.)
Rutul: mys
Tsakhur: musa(na)
Kryz: mys
Archi: basa
Comments: Not quite clear is the denasalisation in Arch. (for this form there are no grounds to suspect an archetype like *wo-nsa).

Comments: Reconstructed for the PEC level. The same stem possibly can be discovered in Lak. cu-ma 'who, which' (a compound with cu 'who'). Note a striking parallelism between PL *mo-sa 'when' and PN *ma-ca(n) id.
[Since initial *mu- must be regularly dropped in Lak., it would be possible to derive Lak. ta 'when' < *mu(r)-ta = PD *mu-rt].

Comments: The old labial nasal of this stem underwent a delabialization, probably due to a dissimilative process caused by the back vowel.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform step 1: *muhwi (-x|-)
Protoform step 2: *mu"hi (-x|-)
NEC parallels: *m@>hwV 'grain, seed; a k. of cereal'; possible
interferences with *mu:qV 'barley'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *bi(h)i, *biC-
Meaning: grain, fruit, vintage
Basque forms: bihi
Meaning: grain, fruit, vintage


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform step 1: *myn?u:
Protoform step 2: *myd?u:
NEC parallels: *ma">h|ny: 'brain, head'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *buru
Meaning: head
Basque forms: buru, buru-, bur-
Meaning: head
Comments: Cfr. burkaitz 'cliff', 'precipice' < *bur(u)-gaitz (lit. bad top).


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *nane-nV
NEC parallels: *na>nV 'child, doll'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *nar-(h)ena
Meaning: race, lineage
Basque form: narea, area
Meaning: race, lineage
Comments: In the aspirating dialects is narhea.
Aquitanian form: Narhon-, Narhun-
Meaning: Prince


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *ne:kalV
NEC parallels: *nV:kV 'swimming, flowing'
(Proto-Nakh *na:ki 'swimming', Urartian nek-, 'to flow, flow out')

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *negali, *negeli
Meaning: to swim; frog
Basque forms: igeri egin 1, igel, igal, ingel, negal 2
Meaning: 1 to swim 2 frog; locust


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *neG|wV
NEC parallels: *G|wi>n?V 'name of a season'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *negu
Meaning: winter
Basque forms: negu
Meaning: winter


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform step 1: *nemz|-ri
Protoform step 2: *doz|-ri
NEC parallels: *ne>mz|_i> 'louse'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *zoRi
Meaning: louse
Basque forms: zorri
Meaning: louse


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *nena-wV
NEC parallels: *na>nV 'child, doll'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *ner(h)a-be
Meaning: child
Basque form: nerabe
Meaning: child


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *nen-s^:V-k.V
NEC parallels: *na>nV 'child, doll'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *neska
Meaning: child (female)
Basque form: neska
Meaning: child (female)
Aquitanian form: Nescato
Aquitanian meaning: Little Child (female)
Comments: There's an ancient inscription from Rossilhon that records Goddesses namaed Niscas.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *neq.-a-rV
NEC parallels: *ne>wq.u> 'tear; pus'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *neg-aR
Meaning: tears
Basque form: negar
Meaning: tears


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *ni:, *na- / *-na
NEC parallels: *ny> 'I'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *ni, *na- / *-da
Meaning: I
Basque forms: ni, na- / -t
Meaning: I

Comments: We note a denasalization in the suffix form. Similar processes are quite common, so there is no need to reconstruct two separate protoforms. It is possible that any verbal stem in prehistorical times ended with a consonant, so the denasalization would be a regular development. Probably Proto-Vasconic protoforms go back to: *nu-i:, *nu-a- / *-nu-a.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *n-q.ahV-s:V
NEC parallels: *q.e>h|lV (~ -l/-) 'bitter; salt'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *gaz 1, *gaz-i 2
Meaning: 1 salt 2 salty
Basque forms: gatz 1, gazi 2
Meaning: 1 salt 2 salty
Comments: Notice gazur 'whey' < gatz + ur 'water'.

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *gazi-dane
Meaning: sour milk > cheese
Basque forms: gazta(e), gazna, gasna, gaztan-
Meaning: cheese
Comments: Notice gaztanbera 'soft cheese', gaztanuz 'whey' < gazta + ur 'water'. For the second member *-dane see the discussion of Proto-Vasconic *-t.a-nV - NEC *=it.Vl 'to drip, drop, pour; wet'.

Comments: Initial nasal is an old fossilized marker reconstructed in order to account for Basque initial voiced consonant, and found also in Tsezian languages.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *n-q.ehV-c.wa-lV
NEC parallels: *q.e>h|lV (~ -l/-) 'bitter; salt' + *?e>c.wA> 'raw,
sour; to get sour'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *gesaL 1, *gesl-i 2
Meaning: 1 salpeter 2 pus
Basque forms: gesal 1, gerli 2
Meaning: 1 salpeter 2 pus


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *-nV
NEC parallels: *-nV 'genitive'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *-n(e), *-en
Meaning: genitive
Basque forms: -en
Meaning: genitive
Comments: Notice ene 'of me', from *eNe < *n-ne.

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *-ni
Meaning: dative
Basque forms: -i, -ri
Meaning: dative
Comments: Notice eni 'to me', from *eNi < *n-ni.

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *-na
Meaning: allative
Basque forms: -a
Meaning: allative
Comments: Notice hana 'to that', from *(h)aNa < *(h)ar-na.

Description of NC relatives (from Starostin):

NEC protoform: *-nV
Meaning: genitive

Nakh Etymology :
Protoform: *-n (cf. also *-nV dative)
Meaning: genitive; adjective and participial suffix; infinitive
Chechen: -n
Ingush: -a (< -a-n), -n
Batsbi: -V~

Andian Etymology :
Protoform: *-nV
Meaning: 1 ablative 2 translative
Avar: -an 1
Akhvakh: -(u)-ne 2

Lak Etymology :
Lak: -n
Meaning: dative I, lative, infinitive

Lezghian Etymology :
Protoform: *-n
Meaning: 1 genitive 2 elative 3 temporal 4 suff. of adjectives and participles 5 terminative 6 ergative
Lezghi: -n 1
Tabasaran: -n 1, -an 2
Agul: -n 1, -(a)na 3
Tsakhur: -na / -n / -ni 1, 4
Budukh: -(x|u-)n (also instrum. -z-@n)
Archi: -n 1
Udi: -n 1, 6

NWC protoform: *-n@
Meaning: 1 ergative and general indirect case 2 possessive case 3 transformative case
Abkhaz: -n- in -n-z|a terminative, -n-t.w|@ elative
Ubykh: -n (sing.), -na (plur.) 1, -na 2, -n@ 3

Comments: Also widely used for building denominative attributes. Cf. Hurr. -nn@ 'suffix of substantivized relative adjectives', as well as Hurr., Urart. -n@ 'ablative, ablative-instrumental'. [Lak. Dat. -n, PN Dat. *-na and PL directive *-na may go back to a separate directive case *-na].


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *-(n)wV
NEC parallels: *ny> 'I'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *-ba / *-be
Meaning: *my > a suffix found in kinship names
Basque forms: -ba / -be
Meaning: a suffix found in kinship names

Comments: This suggestion is due to Miguel Carrasquer Vidal; however I dismiss the Afro-Asiatic link.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform step 1: *p.ala- / *lap.a-
Protoform step 2: *bala- / *laba-
NEC parallels: *l^.e>p.V 'stone plate or shed' (often with
metathesis)

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *bala-ze(h)e
Meaning: megalithic monument
Basque forms: bara-tz(e)
Meaning: megalithic monument

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *laba-Na
Meaning: knife
Basque forms: labaina, labana
Meaning: knife


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *p.o?-ni
NEC parallels: *Hap.V> 'paw, extremity'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *bon-(h)i, *borC-
Meaning: foot
Basque forms: oin, ort-
Meaning: foot
Comments: Notice the compounds: ortusts 'barefoot' < oin + huts 'empty'; orpo 'heel'; 'root' < oin + *-bo.

Comments: Remotely related with pre-IE Germanic *bhajn- 'foot, leg, bone'.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform step 1: *p:u:hu-s:V
Protoform step 2: *bu:hu-s:V
NEC parallels: *pu:HV 'to blow, blowing'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *buz
Meaning: air puff
Basque forms: utz, putz
Meaning: air puff
Comments: No doubt an expressive item; as putz with initial /p/, it is certainly recent, but a form *butz < Pre-Basque *buz is proven by some ancient compounds: uz-ki 'anus' < *buz-ki (lit. place of puffs), and uz-ker 'fart' < *buz-keR (lit. bad puff).


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *pa:l-put.V
NEC parallels: *Hpe:l/V: 'vein, sinew, pipe' + *pu:t.i 'genitals
(mostly female)'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *aL-(h)u(r)
Meaning: vulva
Basque forms: alu
Meaning: vulva
Comments: In the aspirating dialects it is alhu.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *pe:re:
NEC parallels: *pa:re: 'lightning'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *eRe
Meaning: to burn
Basque forms: erre
Meaning: to burn, to blaze
Comments: Notice errauts, herrauts 'cinder' < erre + hauts 'powder'.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *q.:awra:-s:^V
NEC parallels: *q._VhwVrV 'grey, brown'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *aR-as
Meaning: evening
Basque forms: arrats
Meaning: evening


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *q.:awre:
NEC parallels: *q._VhwVrV 'grey, brown'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *aRe
Meaning: dark > grey
Basque forms: aRe
Meaning: grey


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform step 1: *q.:waje:- / *q.:weje:-
Protoform step 2: *gwajV- / *gwejV-
NEC parallels: *q._wa>je: 'thing(s), possession(s), household'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *ga-(h)i, *ge-(h)i
Meaning: object, thing, tool
Basque forms: ga(h)i, ge(h)i
Meaning: object, thing, tool

Comments: The initial strong consonant of the stem has undergone an ancient voicing, a regular change in presence of a labial glide.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *q.:wo-rV, *q.:wo-q.:wo-rV
NEC parallels: *Hamq._wA> / *q.Hwamq._wA> 'hard'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *goR 1, *go-goR 2
Meaning: 1 deaf 2 hard
Basque forms: gor 1, gogor 2
Meaning: 1 deaf 3 hard


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform step 1: *q.:wV-n-(nV)
Protoform step 2: *gwV-n-(nV)
NEC parallels: *=Hi>q.w@ (~ -q._-, -o) 'waist, middle; back'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *gun-eN
Meaning: boundary
Basque forms: guen
Meaning: boundary

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *guN, *guNe, *-(k)uNe
Meaning: midth; marrow; center; point; place
Basque forms: gun, gune, une
Meaning: midth; marrow; center; point; place
Comments: Notice Basque garun 'brain' < *gala 'height' + *gun 'marrow', 'center'.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform step 1: *q.:wV-rV
Protoform step 2: *gwV-rV
NEC parallels: *=Hi>q.w@ (~ -q._-, -o) 'waist, middle; back'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *geRi, *gaRi
Meaning: waist
Basque forms: gerri, garri
Meaning: waist


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *q.ar?V-nV
NEC parallels: *q.ar[H]V 'cousin, first cousin' < 'close relative'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *eReni, *eRani
Meaning: daughter-in-law
Basque forms: errein, errain
Meaning: daughter-in-law


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *q.ar?V-wV
NEC parallels: *q.ar[H]V 'cousin, first cousin' < 'close relative'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *aRe-ba
Meaning: sister (of a man)
Basque forms: arreba
Meaning: sister (of a man)


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *q.wanu:-
NEC parallels: *q.wa>n?u: 'flat surface'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *an-o
Meaning: face > mouth
Basque forms: aho
Meaning: mouth

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *an-uR
Meaning: palm of hand
Basque forms: ahur
Meaning: palm of hand

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *an-uR-e
Meaning: in face > front
Basque forms: aurre
Meaning: front
Comments: An archaic locative of the former.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *q.wanu:-q.wolV
NEC parallels: *q.wa>n?u: 'flat surface' + *q.w@>l?a> 'board'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *on-oL
Meaning: board
Basque forms: ohol
Meaning: board


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *q.welV-
NEC parallels: *q.wil/@, 'rock, cliff, stone'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *el-koR
Meaning: cliff
Basque forms: elkor, malkor, malkar
Meaning: cliff; mountain slope


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *q:wa:p.a:-s:V
NEC parallels:*q_wa:p.a: 'pot, vessel'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *abaz
Meaning: a k. of vessel (churn)
Basque forms: abatz
Meaning: churn

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): **(k)ob-boR > *(g)opoR
Meaning: a k. of vessel (bowl)
Basque forms: opor, gopor
Meaning: bowl
Comments: Second member of the compound is -bor 'round'.

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): **ob-bos > *opos
Meaning: a k. of vessel (churn)
Basque forms: opots
Meaning: churn
Comments: Second member obscure.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *q:e?e(n)-
NEC parallels: *G_V?_wyn- / *?_wy>nG_V 'fumes, stink';
possible interferences with *k._wy>nh_V 'smoke'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *(e)-ke-(h)e
Meaning: smoke
Basque forms: ke, eke
Meaning: smoke


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *q:e?enV-(s^:V)
NEC parallels: *G_V?_wyn- / *?_wy>nG_V 'fumes, stink'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *ke(h)en-as
Meaning: stink, stench
Basque forms: kirats, kirets, karats, kino
Meaning: stink, stench


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *q:e?en-da-rV
NEC parallels: *G_V?_wyn- / *?_wy>nG_V 'fumes, stink'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *gedaR, *kedaR
Meaning: soot
Basque forms: gedar, kedar
Meaning: soot


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *q-alla-wV (k-)
NEC parallels: *HVl|U 'to bear, give birth; to create'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *aL-(h)a-ba
Meaning: daughter
Basque forms: alaba
Meaning: daughter

Comments: Compare especially the Nakh protoform *q-o(:)ll- 'to create'.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *qam?a-nV-
NEC parallels: *qa>m?|V 'wax'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *abano, *abar-aska
Meaning: honeycomb
Basque forms: abao, abaraska
Meaning: honeycomb


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *qamki-(nV)
NEC parallels: *qa>mkV 'fang, molar; stake'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *(h)agin
Meaning: molar tooth
Basque forms: hagin
Meaning: molar tooth

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *(h)aga
Meaning: pole, stake
Basque forms: aga, haga
Meaning: pole, stake

Comments: A suffix -nV is found in some NEC varieties, e.g. Gunzib x|o|G|in, Bezhita (Madieva) hagna id.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *qa(r)de-
NEC parallels: *qe>rHV / *qe>r-di 'a k. of foliage tree (linden,
asp)'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *(h)are-iz
Meaning: tree > oak
Basque forms: haritz, haitz, aretz
Meaning: oak
Aquitanian form: Areixs
Aquitanian meaning: Oak

Comments: The Pre-Basque ending -iz is likely a remote loanword from Afro-Asiatic meaning 'wood', 'tree', and found also in other compounds: zuhaitz 'tree', hurritz 'hazeltree'.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *qen?V-jV
NEC parallels: *qo>n?_V 'yard, enclosure'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *(h)enea
Meaning: enclosure
Basque forms: heia
Meaning: enclosure (for cattle, pigs, etc.)


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *qo:?uru-nV (-mV)
NEC parallels: *qa:?_VrV (/ *?_a:rVqV) 'far; long, high'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *uR-un (-N)
Meaning: far
Basque forms: urrun
Meaning: far


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *qol-dV (-t.V)
NEC parallels: *q@>lV> 'house, hut'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *oL(h)a
Meaning: hut; foundry
Basque forms: ola
Meaning: hut; foundry


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *qwen-dV (-t.V)
NEC parallels: *=HiqwA:(n) 'to bear, give birth'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *ide, *-kide
Meaning: kin, relative
Basque forms: ide, -kide
Meaning: kin, relative


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *-qwenV
NEC parallels: *qwa">nV 'woman'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *-na-
Meaning: female
Basque forms: -n
Meaning: 3 II s. female person verb suffix

Comments: The II s. female person verb suffix -n < *-ga-na, *-na-ga is of interjective nature, an old word for woman agglutinated to the normal verb form. There's no other known feminine marker in the language, but the presence of a -n- connected with feminine is also found in some expressive forms such as no! 'come!' (said to female), towards to! id. (said to male). This could destroy the theory of a Berber, Afro-Asiatic origin of Basque pronouns and verbs, based on the opposition of masculine II s. m. person *-k versus II s. f. person *-m.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *qwenV-bV
NEC parallels: *qwa">nV 'woman'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *en-be
Meaning: female
Basque forms: eme, ema-
Meaning: female
Comments: Compounds: emazte 'wife' < eme + gazte 'young', emakume 'woman' (formerly 'gril') < eme + -kume.

Comments: Trask defines this item as a 'transparent Romance loan' or as a 'Occitan loanword'. First: in late borrowings the cluster -mn- is reduced to -n- and not to -m-. Second: the female person name Emazteona 'Good Wife' is already attested in XI century, while done 'saint' is written domne in that period. Third, the only possible source would be Guascon, with the form hemna. But we don't know if before XI century the change f- > h- > 0 had already occurred in Guascon. The form hemne with final schwa is a recent development. No other item regarding human beings or gender connotation is borrowed form Latin or Romance, and words for 'man', 'person', 'male', 'father', 'mother', 'son', 'daughter', 'child', 'cub', etc. is all pre-Roman. So it's better to consider it a chance resemblance.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *qwilV
NEC parallels: *=ilqwA: 'to run'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *(h)el-
Meaning: to come back, to return
Basque forms: hel-du
Meaning: to come back, to return
Comments: Of course Basque suffix -du is of Latin origin.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *qwoni-(wV)
NEC parallels: *=HiqwA:(n) 'to bear, give birth'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *on-be, *-kon-be
Meaning: child; cub
Basque forms: ume, -kume
Meaning: child; cub


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *qwV(n)qwV-s:o-(nV)
NEC parallels: *Gwi>nGwV / *qwi>nqwV 'pigeon' + *=o:rs_A 'to fly;
to jump (from above)'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *u(n)rzo, *urzo(n)
Meaning: pigeon
Basque forms: urzo, uso
Meaning: pigeon

Comments: A nasal (internal or final) is reconstructed in order to account for the puzzling Roncalese form u~rzo.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *qyx:V-nV-rV
NEC parallels: *qa"wx_wV 'nut' (< *'kernel fruit')

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *(h)u(n)R, *-ku(n)R
Meaning: nut, kernel, acorn
Basque forms: (h)ur, gur
Meaning: hazelnut

Comments: The old initial velar is reconstructed from ez-kur 'acorn'; 'oak'. Internal nasal is reconstructed in order to account for the puzzling Roncalese form hu~r.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *rek.:a
NEC parallels: *ri>q._wA> 'mountain, rock; cave'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *e-Reka
Meaning: stream
Basque forms: erreka
Meaning: stream


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform step 1: *s:e:hmi
Protoform step 2: *s:a:mi
NEC parallels: *s_e:h_mV / *h_e:ms_V 'muscle, vein; intestine'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *zani
Meaning: sinew, nerve; vein
Basque forms: zain
Meaning: sinew, nerve; vein


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *s:o-dV (-t.V)
NEC parallels: *=o:rs_A 'to fly; to jump (from above)'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *zori
Meaning: bird; lot, fortune
Basque forms: xori 1, zori 2
Meaning: 1 bird 2 lot, fortune
Comments: Notice xolarre 'sparrow' < xori + arre 'grey', with an regular dissimilation or the weak -r- in -l-.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *s:o-s:o
NEC parallels: *=o:rs_A 'to fly; to jump (from above)'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *zozo
Meaning: blackbird, oozle
Basque forms: zozo
Meaning: blackbird, oozle; idiot


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *-s:V
NEC parallels: *-s_- 'instrumental animate; general attributive'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *-z(V)
Meaning: instrumental
Basque forms: -z
Meaning: instrumental

Description of NC relatives (from Starostin):

NEC protoform: *-s_-
Meaning: instrumental animate; general attributive

Nakh Etymology :
Protoform: *-sV
Meaning: ergative anim.
Chechen: -sa
Ingush: -s
Batsbi: -s

Andian Etymology :
Protoform: *-s:-
Meaning: 1 denom. and deverb. attrib. 2 future 3 elative
Andi: -s:i 1
Chamalal: -s: 1
Tindi: -s:a- 1
Karata: -s:- 2
Botlikh: -s:u- 1
Bagvalal: -s: 1, 2, 3
Godoberi: -s:u- 1, -s:u 2

Tsezian Etymology :
Protoform: *-s:-
Meaning: 1 denomin. adj. 2 participles 3 emphat. adj. sing. 4 pres. part. 5 gen. (with dependent nom.) 6 elative
Tsezi: -si 1, 2; -s 5
Ginukh: -s 5, 6
Inkhokvari: -so 1, 3, 4; -s 5
Bezhita: -s 1, 5, 6
Gunzib: -s 5, 6

Lak Etymology :
Lak: -s:a
Meaning: suffix of adjectives and participles

Dargwa Etymology :
Protoform: *-s:
Meaning: 1 dative 2 adjectival and participial suffix 3 future conditional (3d p.)
Akusha: -s 1, 3, -si 2

Lezghian Etymology :
Protoform: *-s:
Meaning: 1 dative 2 infinitive 3 elative
Lezghi: -z 1, 2
Tabasaran: -z 1, 2
Agul: -s 1, 2, -as 3
Rutul: -s 1, 2
Tsakhur: -s 1, 2
Kryz: -s 1, 2
Budukh: -z 1
Archi: -s 1, 2
Udi: -s-t:a adessive; -es masdar

Khinalug Etymology :
Khinalug: -s-a"
Meaning: adjective substantivator (inanim.)

NWC protoform: *-s/@
Meaning: transform./adverb. case
Abkhaz: -s (-s/)
Abaza: -s, -sa

Comments: Cf. Hurr. -(u)s^, Urart. -s^@ 'ergative'.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *s^:o-ni
NEC parallels: *s^_VmV / *mVs^_V 'edge, spine'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *soni, *sor-
Meaning: back (n.)
Basque forms: soi(n), sor-
Meaning: back (n.)

Comments: Due to phonetic reasons, we could reconstruct for Proto-Vasconic a former *m(V)s^:V/-ni. Any comparison with Coptic soi 'back (n.)' can be safely excluded, as the Coptic form goes back to Old Egyprian /sa'/.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *s^:una
NEC parallels: *s_Hwin- 'snuff, smell; snot'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *suna
Meaning: smell (n.), odour
Basque forms: suma
Meaning: smell (n.), odour


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *s^:un-t.u-rV
NEC parallels: *s_Hwin-t.V- 'snuff, smell; snot'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *sud-uR
Meaning: nose
Basque forms: sudur, sugur
Meaning: nose


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: s^ahwi-nV-s^:V
NEC parallels: *Hys/ywV 'side'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *saines
Meaning: side
Basque forms: saihets, saigets
Meaning: side


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: s^ilV
NEC parallels: *s/Vl?V 'light, ray'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *e-sila
Meaning: reflexion of light
Basque forms: isla
Meaning: reflexion of light
Aquitanian form: -silexs, Silexs-
Meaning: Bright


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *s^we-ni-(wV)
NEC parallels: *=y>s^wE> 'son, daughter'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *sen-i 1, *sen-be 2
Meaning: 1 child 2 son
Basque forms: sehi, sein 1, seme 2
Meaning: 1 child 2 son
Aquitanian form: Seni-, -seni 1, Sem-be- 2
Aquitanian meaning: 1 Child 2 Son
Comments: Compare anthroponyms like Seniponnis (gen.) '(of) Good Child', Sembetto 'Little Son'.

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *sen-da
Meaning: race, lineage
Basque forms: senda
Meaning: race, lineage

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *sen-(h)aR
Meaning: husband
Basque forms: senar
Meaning: husband
Comments: An ancient compound of *seni plus *aR 'male'.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *se:na-s:V-rV
NEC parallels: *sy:no 'long bone'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *en-az-uR
Meaning: bone
Basque forms: enzur, (h)azur
Meaning: bone

Comments: The loss of an initial sibilant for dissimilation is a quite common pattern even in historical Basque.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *sind-V-nV
NEC parallels: *sindV (~ -a"-) 'a k. of insect'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *zeden
Meaning: moth
Basque forms: zeden
Meaning: moth


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *swa?-a-rV
NEC parallels: *swe>rho 'old; year'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *za-(h)aR
Meaning: old; great (said of living being) > huge, evil
Basque forms: zahar
Meaning: old


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *t.a:p-nV
NEC parallels:*t.a:pV 'a k. of wooden vessel'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *zare
Meaning: basket
Basque forms: zare
Meaning: basket
Comments: A noticeable compound is otzara 'basket' < ogi 'bread' + zare (the final vowel is different).


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform step 1: *-t.a-nV
Protoform step 2: *-dan-V
NEC parallels: *=it.Vl 'to drip, drop, pour; wet'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *-dan-o, *-dan-e
Meaning: drink (n.), liquid
Pre-Basque: *ar-dano 1, *gazi-dane 2
Pre-Basque Meaning: 1 fermented drink 2 sour milk > cheese
Basque forms: ard(a)o, arno, ardan- 1, gazta(e), gazna,
gasna, gaztan- 2
Meaning: 1 wine 2 cheese


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform step 1: *t.i?-t.i
Protoform step 2: *t.it.-?i
NEC parallels: *t.y>l/?V 'finger'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *er-(h)i, *erC-
Meaning: (small) finger
Basque forms: er(h)i, ert-
Meaning: (small) finger

Comments: The liquid consonant in the NEC reconstructed protoform was probably not very stable, as we cannot find any trace of it in Vasconic.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform step 1: *t.V?V-nV
Protoform step 2: *de-ne
NEC parallels: *t.iHV / *Hit.V 'small, little'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *zen-e
Meaning: small, little
Basque forms: zehe
Meaning: small, little


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform step 1: *t.VnV/ 'liquid, drink (n.)'
Protoform step 2: *d@n-e/ 'id.'
NEC parallels: *=it.Vl 'to drip, drop, pour; wet'
Interference with:
Protoform step 1: *z|VnV/- 'to milk'
Protoform step 2: *d@n-e/- 'id.'
NEC parallels: *=a:mz|U> 'to milk; to drink (milk)'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *e-zen-e
Meaning: milk
Basque forms: ezne, esne
Meaning: milk
Comments: Archaic Basque ezene, esene.

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *zen-ber(h)a
Meaning: pot cheese
Basque forms: zenbera
Meaning: pot cheese


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *t.V-s:V-nV (-mV)
NEC protoforms: *=i:t.V (~ -e:-) 'straight'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *zu-zen (-N)
Meaning: straight
Basque forms: zuzen
Meaning: straight


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform step 1: *tl|o:
Protoform step 2: *dG|u:
NEC parallels: *La" 'we' (1st p. pl. incl.)

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *gu, *ga- / *-gu
Meaning: we
Basque forms: gu, ga- / -gu
Meaning: we


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *wa-n-dV (-t.V) / *we-n-dV (-t.V)
NEC parallels: *?u (~ *hu) 'demonstrative pronoun (that / this)'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *bade / *bede-
Meaning: this one
Basque forms: bat 1, bede-ra 2
Meaning: 1 one 2 one apiece

Iberian Etymology :
Paleo-Iberian protoform: *wa-nV-
Meaning: this
Old Iberian: ban
Late Iberian: ban, bam, man


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *we-dV (-t.V)
NEC parallels: *?u (~ *hu) 'demonstrative pronoun (that / this)'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *bere-
Meaning: the same; self
Basque forms: bere, ber-
Meaning: the same; self


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *we-lt.:awVn(?)V
NEC parallels: *l^._wVn?V (~ -?_-) 'groin; part of leg'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *beLaun, *beLaur-
Meaning: knee
Basque forms: belaun, belaur-
Meaning: knee

Comments: Compare the Lazghian protoforms Protoform: *l^.:on(a), *wo-l^.:on(a) 'ankle, wedge, nail, peg, stake, finger-nail, fang'.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *wex|:we
NEC parallels: *?wa>x|_wV 'bottom, lower part; behind'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *be(h)e
Meaning: bottom, lower part; below
Basque forms: behe, -pe
Meaning: below
Comments: Basque pean below is an ancient locative form < *be(h)a-n.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *wi:-ho-s:V
NEC parallels: *?u (~ *hu) 'demonstrative pronoun (that / this)' +
*ha> 'an emphatic demonstrative stem'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *bi(h)o-z
Meaning: center; heart
Basque forms: bihotz
Meaning: heart
Comments: An interesting compound is zubihotz 'heart of oak' < zur 'wood' + bihotz.
Aquitanian form: Biho-, Bihoxs, Bihos-
Meaning: heart, courage
Commments: Well documented in anthoponyms: Bihoscinnis (gen.) 'of the Heart-Maker', Biho-tar 'Brave'.

Comments: The ancient deictic NEC pronouns often were used with the meaning of 'inside': Lak wi-w, wi: 'inside', Andi hinu 'inside', Gunzib e~du 'inside'.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform step 1: *wo:nx|:wV
Protoform step 2: *wo:m:V
NEC parallels: *we:nl|_we: 'luck, good'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *boN, *bon / *bob-
Meaning: good
Basque form: on 1, hobe 2
Meaning: 1 good 2 better
Aquitanian form: Bon-, -bon, -pon
Aquitanian meaning: Good

Iberian Etymology :
Paleo-Iberian protoform: *wo:nx|w-ar
Meaning: good (n. and adj.)
Old Iberian: u~bar
Late Iberian: (d)umar
Comments: In inscriptions the word is used with the meaning of 'good thing' > 'offer'. The initial d- is often found in compounds and probably is an old class prefix used to derive substantives from adjectives, then fossilized. Other words present similar characters.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *wVqa:lV
NEC parallels: *l/a>wqV: / *-a>wqV:l/ 'many, enough'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *ugali
Meaning: many; abundance
Basque forms: ugari, ugal-
Meaning: many; abundance


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *x|:a-da / *x|:a-u-da / *x|:e-u-
NEC parallels: *G|V 'a pronominal stem'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *(h)a-r
Meaning: that
Basque forms: har
Meaning: that
Comments: From this form the article in -a has originated. In the Pyrenaean dialects there are forms with initial velar stop: kar, gar. An ancient locative is Basque are 'even'.

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *(h)au-r
Meaning: this
Basque forms: haur
Meaning: this
Comments: From this form the obsolete article in -o and the pronominal element -o- have originated. In the Pyrenaean dialects there are forms with initial velar stop: kaur, gaur.

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *(h)eu-en
Meaning: here
Basque forms: hemen
Meaning: here
Comments: An ancient locative form. In the Pyrenaean dialects there are forms with initial velar stop: kemen, gemen.

Iberian Etymology :
Paleo-Iberian protoform: *x|:V-rV-
Meaning: here
Old Iberian: ar'-e, ir'-e
Iberian Meaning: here, in this place

Description of NC relatives (from Starostin):

NEC protoform: *G|V
Meaning: a demonstrative pronoun

Andian Etymology :
Protoform: *G|V-
Meaning: 1 that 2 this, he
Avar: G|o-b 1
Comments: The Av. root has no parallels in Andian languages, but seems to have external parallels.

Lezghian Etymology :
Protoform: *G|u-
Meaning: demonstr. pronoun ('that (above)')
Tabasaran: G|u-mu
Archi: G|u-du
Comments: See Aljeksjejev 1985, 75.

Khinalug Etymology :
Khinalug: G|i
Meaning: that, he (obl. stem)
Comments: The stem is used in obl. cases of the pronoun du / da" (q.v.) in the 1st and 2d classes (1st class: erg. G|i, dat. G|u, 2d class: erg. G|w|i, dat. G|u).

Comments: The identity of the Av., PL and Khin. stems is obvious, although it is rather hard to reconstruct the precise function of this pronoun. In PL it is used to denote objects located higher than the speaker; in Avar - rather vice versa (it is either a neutral third person pronoun or denotes objects located lower than the speaker). Cf. also Khin. q:w|a (with emphatic tenseness, the same as in t:w|a < *dV) 'there (below the speaker)'.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *x|:ane-s:V
NEC parallels: *G|e>?|ne 'stone plate, rock layer';
possible interference with *hG_wa:nu: 'large flat stone'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *an-ez
Meaning: rock, crag
Basque forms: haitz
Meaning: crag
Comments: Cfr. also haizpe 'cavern' < haitz + behe 'below', from which the Pyrenaic toponymic elements Asp, -asp are derived.

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *an-ez-te-R, -tuR
Meaning: shears
Basque forms: haiztur, (h)aizter
Meaning: shears

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *an-ez-to
Meaning: knife
Basque forms: aizto
Meaning: knife
Comments: Found in Roncalese.

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *an-ez-tu-R
Meaning: forceps, thongs
Basque forms: (h)aiztur
Meaning: forceps, thongs

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *an-ez-u-R
Meaning: heavy hoe
Basque forms: (h)aitzur
Meaning: heavy hoe

Comments: Basque haizkora 'axe' is safely from latin asciola(m), diminutive of ascia(m).


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *x|:arx|:i
NEC parallels: *Go>rGV 'stone'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *(h)aR-(h)i / *(h)arC-
Meaning: stone
Basque forms: harri, har(t)-
Meaning: stone
Comments: Cfr. also harpe 'cavern' < harri + behe 'below'; hargin 'bricklayer' < harri + egin 'to make'. The word harbel 'slate' < harri + -bel 'black' is irregular.

Comments: This root was later borrowed into Proto-Celtic *karri-ka: 'stone, rock', well attested in Britain (> Welsh carreg) and in Gaul. It is well documented also in Ligurian Pre-Celtic substratum as kar- / karr-. A Latin author provides us a gloss: carris, cararis 'nomen saxi'. Any attempt to provide these forms with an IE etymon has been either unsuccessful or ridicule, as happens. So we consider it a noticeable substratum item in areas very far from Vasconic fatherland.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *x|:e:lu-n-
NEC parallels: *x|_a:l/V 'sinew; thread'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *e-ilun-i
Meaning: to spin (thread)
Basque forms: irun
Meaning: to spin (thread)

Comments: A noticeable word describing a Neolithic technology.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *x|:olt.wV
NEC parallels: *L^_@dwi / L^_@L^@dwi 'corn'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *oL(h)o
Meaning: oats
Basque forms: olo
Meaning: oats


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *x|:u:ne- / *x|:we:nu-
NEC parallels: *h|q._w@:n@: 'rat'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *uni-zene / *enu-zene
Meaning: rabbit
Basque forms: untxe(i); entxe (arch.)
Meaning: rabbit

Iberian Etymology :
Paleo-Iberian protoform: *k:une-
Meaning: rabbit
Iberian: *kuni
Comments: Basque kui rabbit is a regular loan from late Iberian (< *kuni).

Comments: Phonetic correspondences are quite regular. From the Iberian form the Latin word cuniculus was borrowed (with the addiction of a diminutive suffix).


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *x|:urx|:V
NEC parallels: *G|u>rG|V 'grumbling, roar'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *oRo, *ba-uRe, *aRan-ba,
*baRun-ba
Meaning: roar
Basque forms: orro, maurre, arrama, marruma
Meaning: roar


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *x|:wa:t.-t.V
NEC parallels: *G_wa:t.V 'street, block, village' < 'passage'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *ate
Meaning: door
Basque forms: ate
Meaning: door

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *ate-la
Meaning: to go out
Basque forms: atera
Meaning: to go out
Comments: Originally an allative of ate.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *x|:walV-
NEC parallels: *Gw[u">]l/o> 'side'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *al-de, *-kal-de; *al-bo
Meaning: side
Basque forms: alde, -kalde, albo
Meaning: side, slope (also slope of mountain)
Comments: Cfr. the compound alpe 'side, slope (of mountain)' < alde + behe 'down'. This item is often compared with the oronym Alpes.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *x|:wat.V-nV
NEC parallels: *q._h|wat.y 'ravine, mountain pass'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *(h)aran
Meaning: valley
Basque forms: haran
Meaning: valley


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *x|:we:rV-bV
NEC parallels: *G_wo:r?_e 'hare'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *erbi
Meaning: hare
Basque forms: erbi
Meaning: hare

Comments: Most probably an ancient plural fossilized form.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *x|:wojV
NEC parallels: *x|_Hwe>je 'dog'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *(h)or
Meaning: dog
Basque forms: (h)or
Meaning: dog
Comments: Basque ozar 'big dog' < (h)or + zahar.

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *(h)ori
Meaning: *dog-coloured, *tawny > yellow
Basque forms: hori
Meaning: yellow
Comments: There was confusion with Pre-Basque *borio '(bright) yellow', originally a distinct item from Celtic.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform step 1: *x|udulu-wV
Protoform step 2: *x|u"dlu-wV
NEC parallels: *x|udu(l/V) 'nephew; friend, husband'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *iL-(h)o-ba
Meaning: nephew
Basque forms: iloba
Meaning: nephew


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *x|wal?V-
NEC parallels: *x|wy>l?_i 'fat (n.); meat'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *(h)ala-gi
Meaning: meat
Basque forms: haragi
Meaning: meat


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *x|we:r?i
NEC parallels: *x|wo:rh|V (/ *rh|o:x|wV) 'village, farmstead'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *(h)eRi
Meaning: country
Basque forms: herri
Meaning: country


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform step 1: *x:yn:V
Protoform step 2: *x:yn- / *x:yd
NEC parallels: *x_a">nh|y> 'water'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *ur, *un-, *u-
Meaning: water
Basque form: ur, uh-, u-
Meaning: water

Comments: Ancient compounds have uh- / u- as a first member: ubil 'vortex' < ur + -bil 'round thing', uhain, uhin 'wave' < ur + gain 'top'; uheri 'hydropisy' < ur + eri 'illness' (< *eli); ubel violet < ur + -bel 'black'. More recent compounds preserve ur-: urtxakur 'otter' < ur + zakur dog.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *xa:ro / *xe:ro-jV-s:V
NEC parallels: *xa:ro 'hollow, cavity'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *aRo, *eRoiz
Meaning: ravine, precipice; valley (of a river)
Basque form: arro, erroitz
Meaning: ravine, precipice; valley (of a river)


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *z|:y/n-lV
NEC parallels: *z|_o>n?u> 'navel'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *ziL
Meaning: navel
Basque forms: zil, zil-bor
Meaning: navel


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform step 1: *z|het.e
Protoform step 2: *dede / *zede
NEC parallels: *z|HVt.V- 'female'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *er-(h)e
Meaning: woman, female
Basque forms: an-d(e)re
Meaning: lady
Aquitanian forms: Erhe-, Ere- 1, Andere- 2
Aquitanian meaning: 1 woman, female 2 lady

Comments: Phonetic correspondences are quite regular.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform step 1: *z|himak.u-ri
Protoform step 2: *dimagu-ri / *zimagu-ri
NEC parallels: *z|HE>mVk.A> 'ant'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *(z)inaguRi
Meaning: ant
Basque forms: (z)inurri, (z)inhurri, (z)inaurri
Meaning: ant


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *z^|eq.-rV
NEC parallels: *z^|a[r]q.V 'sow, pig'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *zeRi
Meaning: pig, swine
Basque forms: zerri, xerri
Meaning: pig, swine

Comments: Originally a plural.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform step 1: *z^|umi
Protoform step 2: *zu"mi
NEC parallels: *z^|h|u>mV 'bush; shrub; grass; cornel'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *zini
Meaning: reed
Basque forms: zi
Meaning: reed


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *z|Vz|V-
NEC parallels: *z|[u]rz|V 'to tremble, be afraid'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *izu
Meaning: fear
Basque forms: izu, izi
Meaning: fear

Comments: The loss of an initial sibilant for dissimilation is a quite common pattern even in historical Basque.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *z|we:l-
NEC parallels:*z|wa:lV (~ -a":-, -l/-) 'god'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *ziL-(h)egi
Meaning: permitted, allowed (by religious law)
Basque forms: zilegi
Meaning: permitted, allowed (by religious law)

Comments: Second member of the compound still rather obscure.


Proto-Vasconic Etymology :
Protoform: *zwo:
NEC parallels: *z/we> 'you (pl.)'

Pre-Basque (in Michelena's ortography): *zu, *za- / *-zu
Meaning: you (pl.)
Basque forms: zu, za- / -zu
Meaning: thou, you (honorific)


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